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      Comparative evaluation of risk management frameworks for U.S. source waters


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          The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act required states to develop source water assessment programs identifying existing and potential contamination sources; however, comprehensive risk prioritization and management approaches for surface water supplies have seen limited application. This participatory study assessed which permutation(s) of risk management frameworks and tools might benefit U.S. utilities by combining a literature review with external utility interviews. Qualitative data provided a basis for categorical assignments of goodness of fit with each of 24 framework evaluation criteria across five categories. Weighted integration using stakeholder input provided a relative ranking of applicability, later validated at a decision‐making workshop. Hybridization of the American National Standards Institute/American Water Works Association (ANSI/AWWA G300) source water protection standard and World Health Organization Water Safety Plan guidance was recommended to develop a comprehensive risk management approach for U.S. source waters. Cost–benefit components of other guidance materials were recommended to incorporate financial considerations into risk ranking and mitigation decisions.

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          Most cited references26

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          Flint Water Crisis Caused By Interrupted Corrosion Control: Investigating "Ground Zero" Home.

          Flint, Michigan switched to the Flint River as a temporary drinking water source without implementing corrosion control in April 2014. Ten months later, water samples collected from a Flint residence revealed progressively rising water lead levels (104, 397, and 707 μg/L) coinciding with increasing water discoloration. An intensive follow-up monitoring event at this home investigated patterns of lead release by flow rate-all water samples contained lead above 15 μg/L and several exceeded hazardous waste levels (>5000 μg/L). Forensic evaluation of exhumed service line pipes compared to water contamination "fingerprint" analysis of trace elements, revealed that the immediate cause of the high water lead levels was the destabilization of lead-bearing corrosion rust layers that accumulated over decades on a galvanized iron pipe downstream of a lead pipe. After analysis of blood lead data revealed spiking lead in blood of Flint children in September 2015, a state of emergency was declared and public health interventions (distribution of filters and bottled water) likely averted an even worse exposure event due to rising water lead levels.
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            Benefits of Water Safety Plans: microbiology, compliance, and public health.

            The Water Safety Plan (WSP) methodology, which aims to enhance safety of drinking water supplies, has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004. WSPs are now used worldwide and are legally required in several countries. However, there is limited systematic evidence available demonstrating the effectiveness of WSPs on water quality and health. Iceland was one of the first countries to legislate the use of WSPs, enabling the analysis of more than a decade of data on impact of WSP. The objective was to determine the impact of WSP implementation on regulatory compliance, microbiological water quality, and incidence of clinical cases of diarrhea. Surveillance data on water quality and diarrhea were collected and analyzed. The results show that HPC (heterotrophic plate counts), representing microbiological growth in the water supply system, decreased statistically significant with fewer incidents of HPC exceeding 10 cfu per mL in samples following WSP implementation and noncompliance was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001 in both cases). A significant decrease in incidence of diarrhea was detected where a WSP was implemented, and, furthermore, the results indicate that population where WSP has been implemented is 14% less likely to develop clinical cases of diarrhea.
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              Application of HACCP to drinking water supply


                Author and article information

                AWWA Water Sci
                AWWA Water Sci
                Awwa Water Science
                John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
                19 February 2019
                Jan-Feb 2019
                : 1
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1002/aws2.v1.1 )
                : e1125
                [ 1 ] The Water Institute Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill North Carolina
                [ 2 ] Tampa Bay Water Clearwater Florida
                [ 3 ] Corona Environmental Consulting Louisville Colorado
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Karen Setty, UNC Chapel Hill, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, 166 Rosenau Hall, CB #7431, Chapel Hill, NC 27599‐7431.

                Email: ksetty@ 123456live.unc.edu

                Author information
                © 2019 The Authors. AWWA Water Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Water Works Association

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 26 September 2018
                : 20 December 2018
                : 26 December 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, Pages: 14, Words: 11629
                Funded by: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
                Award ID: T32ES007018
                Funded by: Tampa Bay Water
                Funded by: UNC Royster Society of Fellows
                Funded by: Water Research Foundation
                Award ID: 4748
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                January/February 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version: mode:remove_FC converted:03.04.2019

                drinking water safety,haccp,risk management,surface water


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