Blood monocytes are well-characterized precursors for macrophages and dendritic cells. Subsets of human monocytes with differential representation in various disease states are well known. In contrast, mouse monocyte subsets have been characterized minimally. In this study we identify three subpopulations of mouse monocytes that can be distinguished by differential expression of Ly-6C, CD43, CD11c, MBR, and CD62L. The subsets share the characteristics of extensive phagocytosis, similar expression of M-CSF receptor (CD115), and development into macrophages upon M-CSF stimulation. By eliminating blood monocytes with dichloromethylene-bisphosphonate-loaded liposomes and monitoring their repopulation, we showed a developmental relationship between the subsets. Monocytes were maximally depleted 18 h after liposome application and subsequently reappeared in the circulation. These cells were exclusively of the Ly-6C(high) subset, resembling bone marrow monocytes. Serial flow cytometric analyses of newly released Ly-6C(high) monocytes showed that Ly-6C expression on these cells was down-regulated while in circulation. Under inflammatory conditions elicited either by acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes or chronic infection with Leishmania major, there was a significant increase in immature Ly-6C(high) monocytes, resembling the inflammatory left shift of granulocytes. In addition, acute peritoneal inflammation recruited preferentially Ly-6C(med-high) monocytes. Taken together, these data identify distinct subpopulations of mouse blood monocytes that differ in maturation stage and capacity to become recruited to inflammatory sites.