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      Dissolved oxygen and ammonia levels in water that affect plasma ionic content and gallbladder bile in silver catfish Translated title: Níveis de oxigênio dissolvido e amônia na água afetam o conteúdo iônico do plasma e da bile vesicular em jundiá

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          Abstract

          Ionic contents (Na+, K+ and Cl-) of plasma and gallbladder bile (GB) of juveniles silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen (156.1±0.2g, 28.2±0.3cm), were determined in three different times (0, 6 and 24h) after exposure to: a) control or high dissolved oxygen (DO = 6.5mg L-1) + low NH3 (0.03mg L-1); b) low DO (3.5mg L-1) + low NH3; c) high DO + high NH3 (0.1mg L-1); and d) low DO + high NH3. High waterborne NH3 or low DO levels increased plasma and GB ion levels. These parameters might have followed different mechanisms to affect osmoregulation since a synergic effect of these variables was detected.

          Translated abstract

          O conteúdo iônico (Na+, K+ e Cl-) do plasma e da bile vesicular (BV) de juvenis de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (156,1±0,2g, 28,2±0,3cm), foi determinado em três diferentes tempos (0, 6 e 24h) após exposição a: a) controle ou alto oxigênio dissolvido (OD = 6,5mg L-1) + baixa NH3 (0,03mg L-1); b) baixo OD (3,5mg L-1) + baixa NH3; c) alto OD + alta NH3 (0,1mg L-1); e baixo OD + alta NH3 . Alta concentração de amônia ou baixo oxigênio dissolvido na água aumentaram os níveis iônicos no plasma e na BV. Aparentemente, os efeitos osmorregulatórios desses parâmetros podem estar relacionados a mecanismos distintos, pois foi detectado efeito sinérgico sobre essa alteração osmorregulatória.

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          Most cited references 41

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          The stress response in fish.

           S Bonga (1997)
          The stress response in teleost fish shows many similarities to that of the terrestrial vertebrates. These concern the principal messengers of the brain-sympathetic-chromaffin cell axis (equivalent of the brain-sympathetic-adrenal medulla axis) and the brain-pituitary-interrenal axis (equivalent of the brain-pituitary-adrenal axis), as well as their functions, involving stimulation of oxygen uptake and transfer, mobilization of energy substrates, reallocation of energy away from growth and reproduction, and mainly suppressive effects on immune functions. There is also growing evidence for intensive interaction between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system in fish. Conspicuous differences, however, are present, and these are primarily related to the aquatic environment of fishes. For example, stressors increase the permeability of the surface epithelia, including the gills, to water and ions, and thus induce systemic hydromineral disturbances. High circulating catecholamine levels as well as structural damage to the gills and perhaps the skin are prime causal factors. This is associated with increased cellular turnover in these organs. In fish, cortisol combines glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions, with the latter being essential for the restoration of hydromineral homeostasis, in concert with hormones such as prolactin (in freshwater) and growth hormone (in seawater). Toxic stressors are part of the stress literature in fish more so than in mammals. This is mainly related to the fact that fish are exposed to aquatic pollutants via the extensive and delicate respiratory surface of the gills and, in seawater, also via drinking. The high bioavailability of many chemicals in water is an additional factor. Together with the variety of highly sensitive perceptive mechanisms in the integument, this may explain why so many pollutants evoke an integrated stress response in fish in addition to their toxic effects at the cell and tissue levels. Exposure to chemicals may also directly compromise the stress response by interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms. Because hydromineral disturbance is inherent to stress in fish, external factors such as water pH, mineral composition, and ionic calcium levels have a significant impact on stressor intensity. Although the species studied comprise a small and nonrepresentative sample of the almost 20,000 known teleost species, there are many indications that the stress response is variable and flexible in fish, in line with the great diversity of adaptations that enable these animals to live in a large variety of aquatic habitats.
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            Hypoxia induces adaptive and reversible gross morphological changes in crucian carp gills.

            We show that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) living in normoxic (aerated) water have gills that lack protruding lamellae, the primary site of O(2) uptake in fish. Such an unusual trait leads to a very small respiratory surface area. Histological examination showed that the lamellae (secondary lamellae) of these fish were embedded in a cell mass (denoted embedded lamellae). When the fish were kept in hypoxic water, a large reduction in this cell mass occurred, making the lamellae protrude and increasing the respiratory surface area by approximately 7.5-fold. This morphological change was found to be reversible and was caused by increased apoptosis combined with reduced cell proliferation. Carp with protruding lamellae had a higher capacity for oxygen uptake at low oxygen levels than fish with embedded lamellae, but water and ion fluxes appeared to be increased, which indicates increased osmoregulatory costs. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of an adaptive and reversible gross morphological change in the respiratory organ of an adult vertebrate in response to changes in the availability of oxygen.
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              Acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile gilthead seabream Sparus aurata under reduced oxygen levels

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cr
                Ciência Rural
                Cienc. Rural
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria )
                1678-4596
                September 2009
                : 39
                : 6
                : 1768-1773
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Brazil
                Article
                S0103-84782009000600020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Categories
                AGRONOMY

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