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      Evaluation of the protective effects of curcuminoid (curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin)-loaded liposomes against bone turnover in a cell-based model of osteoarthritis

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          Abstract

          Curcumin (Cur) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), extracted from Curcuma longa, are poorly water-soluble polyphenol compounds that have shown anti-inflammatory potential for the treatment of osteoarthritis. To increase cellular uptake of Cur and BDMC in bone tissue, soybean phosphatidylcholines were used for liposome formulation. In this study, curcuminoid (Cur and BDMC)-loaded liposomes were characterized in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency, liposome stability, and cellular uptake. The results show that there is about 70% entrapment efficiency of Cur and BDMC in liposomes and that particle sizes are stable after liposome formation. Both types of liposome can inhibit macrophage inflammation and osteoclast differential activities. In comparison with free drugs (Cur and BDMC), curcuminoid-loaded liposomes were less cytotoxic and expressed high cellular uptake of the drugs. Of note is that Cur-loaded liposomes can prevent liposome-dependent inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, but BDMC-loaded liposomes could not. With interleukin (IL)-1β stimulation, curcuminoid-loaded liposomes can successfully downregulate the expression of inflammatory markers on osteoblasts, and show a high osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio to prevent osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that Cur and BDMC can be successfully encapsulated in liposomes and can reduce osteoclast activity and maintain osteoblast functions. Therefore, curcuminoid-loaded liposomes may slow osteoarthritis progression.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The interleukin 1beta pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

          Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major disabling disease and is ranked as a major cause of chronic pain in adults. The pathology of the illness is characterized by a loss of articular cartilage leading to narrowing of joint space, increased joint friction, potential structural remodeling, persistent pain, and functional impairment. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) has several chemical and bioactive characteristics allowing this catabolic protein to be involved in initiation and progression of OA. We review the current understanding of the pathogenesis of OA, and how upregulation of IL-1beta initiates a cascade of intracellular events that can culminate in activation of proteinases, creation of a pro-destructive articular milieu, suppression of anabolic pathways, and a decrease in the synthesis of cartilage extracellular matrix. Therapeutic approaches to block the action of IL-1beta and overcome its signal transduction to curtail disease progression are discussed.
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            Regulation of vascular calcification by osteoclast regulatory factors RANKL and osteoprotegerin.

            Vascular calcification often occurs with advancing age, atherosclerosis, various metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease, or in rare genetic diseases, leading to serious clinical consequences. Such mineralization can occur at various sites (cardiac valves, arterial intima or media, capillaries), involve localized or diffuse widespread calcification, and result from numerous causes that provoke active inflammatory and osteogenic processes or disordered mineral homeostasis. Although valuable research has defined many key factors and cell types involved, surprising new insights continue to arise that deepen our understanding and suggest novel research directions or strategies for clinical intervention in calcific vasculopathies. One emerging area in vascular biology involves the RANKL/RANK/OPG system, molecules of the tumor necrosis factor-related family recently discovered to be critical regulators of immune and skeletal biology. Evidence is accumulating that such signals may be expressed, regulated, and function in vascular physiology and pathology in unique ways to promote endothelial cell survival, angiogenesis, monocyte or endothelial cell recruitment, and smooth muscle cell osteogenesis and calcification. Concerted research efforts are greatly needed to understand these potential roles, clarify whether RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand) promotes and osteoprotegerin (OPG) protects against vascular calcification, define how OPG genetic polymorphisms relate to cardiovascular disease, and learn whether elevated serum OPG levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in patients. Overall, the RANKL/RANK/OPG system may mediate important and complex links between the vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Thus, these molecules may play a central role in regulating the development of vascular calcification coincident with declines in skeletal mineralization with age, osteoporosis, or disease.
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              An overview of the regulation of bone remodelling at the cellular level.

              To review the current literature on the regulation of bone remodelling at the cellular level. The cellular activities of the cells in the basic multicellular unit (BMU) were evaluated. Bone remodelling requires an intimate cross-talk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is tightly coordinated by regulatory proteins that interact through complex autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. Osteocytes, bone lining cells, osteomacs, and vascular endothelial cells also regulate bone remodelling in the BMU via cell signalling networks of ligand-receptor complexes. In addition, through secreted and membrane-bound factors in the bone microenvironment, T and B lymphocytes mediate bone homeostasis in osteoimmunology. Osteoporosis and other bone diseases occur because multicellular communication within the BMU is disrupted. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of bone remodelling and the discovery of novel paracrine or coupling factors, such as RANKL, sclerostin, EGFL6 and semaphorin 4D, will lay the foundation for drug development against bone diseases. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                20 April 2015
                : 9
                : 2285-2300
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, Republic of China
                [2 ]Orthopaedic Department, Chiayi Branch, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cheng-Nan Chen; Hsin-I Chang, Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 University Road, Chiayi, Taiwan, Republic of China, Email cnchen@ 123456mail.ncyu.edu.tw ; hchang@ 123456mail.ncyu.edu.tw

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-9-2285
                10.2147/DDDT.S78277
                4408943
                © 2015 Yeh et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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