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      Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a Hemodialysis Patient

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          Abstract

          There has been a global outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019. Here, we describe the case of a 49-year-old male undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) who got infected with COVID-19 and our experience in performing HD for him. The patient’s symptoms and lung imaging changes were atypical. However, his lymphocyte range decreased upon admission and the polymerase chain reaction of the pharyngeal swab for the ­COVID-19 nucleic acid was positive. The patient developed respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation 8 days after admission. In the end, he died from multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The difficulties in diagnosis, infection control, and treatment of COVID-19 in maintenance HD patients are discussed in this report.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Hospital Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

          In September 2012, the World Health Organization reported the first cases of pneumonia caused by the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We describe a cluster of health care-acquired MERS-CoV infections. Medical records were reviewed for clinical and demographic information and determination of potential contacts and exposures. Case patients and contacts were interviewed. The incubation period and serial interval (the time between the successive onset of symptoms in a chain of transmission) were estimated. Viral RNA was sequenced. Between April 1 and May 23, 2013, a total of 23 cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Symptoms included fever in 20 patients (87%), cough in 20 (87%), shortness of breath in 11 (48%), and gastrointestinal symptoms in 8 (35%); 20 patients (87%) presented with abnormal chest radiographs. As of June 12, a total of 15 patients (65%) had died, 6 (26%) had recovered, and 2 (9%) remained hospitalized. The median incubation period was 5.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 14.7), and the serial interval was 7.6 days (95% CI, 2.5 to 23.1). A total of 21 of the 23 cases were acquired by person-to-person transmission in hemodialysis units, intensive care units, or in-patient units in three different health care facilities. Sequencing data from four isolates revealed a single monophyletic clade. Among 217 household contacts and more than 200 health care worker contacts whom we identified, MERS-CoV infection developed in 5 family members (3 with laboratory-confirmed cases) and in 2 health care workers (both with laboratory-confirmed cases). Person-to-person transmission of MERS-CoV can occur in health care settings and may be associated with considerable morbidity. Surveillance and infection-control measures are critical to a global public health response.
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            Aspects of immune dysfunction in end-stage renal disease.

            End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and infections, accounting for 50% and 20%, respectively, of the total mortality in ESRD patients. It is possible that these two complications are linked to alterations in the immune system in ESRD, as uremia is associated with a state of immune dysfunction characterized by immunodepression that contributes to the high prevalence of infections among these patients, as well as by immunoactivation resulting in inflammation that may contribute to CVD. This review describes disorders of the innate and adaptive immune systems in ESRD, underlining the specific role of ESRD-associated disturbances of Toll-like receptors. Finally, based on the emerging links between the alterations of immune system, CVD, and infections in ESRD patients, it emphasizes the potential role of the immune dysfunction in ESRD as an underlying cause for the high mortality in this patient population and the need for more studies in this area.
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              Mortality caused by sepsis in patients with end-stage renal disease compared with the general population.

              In the United States, infection is second to cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia accounts for more than 75% of this category. This increased susceptibility to infections is partly due to uremia, old age, and comorbid conditions. Although it is intuitive to believe that mortality caused by sepsis may be higher in patients with ESRD compared with the general population (GP), no such data are currently available. We compared annual mortality rates caused by sepsis in patients with ESRD (U.S. Health Care Financing Administration 2746 death notification form) with those in the GP (death certificate). Data were abstracted from the U.S. Renal Data System (1994 through 1996 Special Data request) and the National Center for Health Statistics. Data were stratified by age, gender, race, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for potential limitations of the data sources. Overall, the annual percentage mortality secondary to sepsis was approximately 100- to 300-fold higher in dialysis patients and 20-fold higher in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) compared with the GP. Mortality caused by sepsis was higher among diabetic patients across all populations. After stratification for age, differences between groups decreased but retained their magnitude. These findings remained robust despite a wide range of sensitivity analyses. Indeed, mortality secondary to sepsis remained approximately 50-fold higher in dialysis patients compared with the GP, using multiple cause-of-death analyses; was approximately 50-fold higher in diabetic patients with ESRD compared with diabetic patients in the GP, when accounting for underreporting of DM on death certificates in the GP; and was approximately 30-fold higher in RTRs compared with the GP, when accounting for the incomplete ascertainment of cause of death among RTRs. Furthermore, despite assignment of primary cause-of-death to major organ infections in the GP, annual mortality secondary to sepsis remained 30- to 45-fold higher in the dialysis population. Patients with ESRD treated by dialysis have higher annual mortality rates caused by sepsis compared with the GP, even after stratification for age, race, and DM. Consequently, this patient population should be considered at high-risk for the development of lethal sepsis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood Purif
                Blood Purif
                BPU
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                27 April 2020
                : 1-4
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, China
                bDepartment of Respirology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, China
                Author notes
                *Fengqi Hu and Li Lu, Department of Nephrology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, Hubei 441000 (China), E-Mail hufengqi1gmail.com and 1549031579@ 123456qq.com

                H.Y. and E.G. contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                bpu-0001
                10.1159/000507877
                7251582
                32340018
                Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Case Report

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