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      A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Hyalomma scupense, Tick, Biology, Control, Cattle, Vector, Maghreb

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          Abstract

          Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited.

          Translated abstract

          Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) est une tique diphasique, domestique, endophile, elle est fréquente chez les bovins et secondairement chez d’autres ongulés dans la région du Maghreb. Cette espèce transmet plusieurs pathogènes, dont deux provoquent des maladies majeures : Theileria annulata et Theileria equi. Différents autres pathogènes sont également transmis par cette espèce de tique, tels que Anaplasma phagocytophilum et Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense est commune dans les régions subhumides et semi-arides de plusieurs régions du monde, principalement dans le Maghreb. Les adultes sont observés sur les animaux en été, les larves et les nymphes se fixent sur leurs hôtes durant l’automne, mais il existe une différence régionale de la phénologie d’ H. scupense. Il y a un chevauchement entre les stades immatures et les tiques adultes, et ce phénomène induit, dans certains contextes, une importante modification de l’épidémiologie des infections transmises par les tiques. Cette tique se fixe préférentiellement au niveau des quartiers postérieurs des mamelles et des cuisses. L’intensité d’infestation peut atteindre 130 tiques avec une moyenne de 60 tiques. Les veaux sont 70 fois moins infestés que les adultes. La lutte peut être réalisée par six méthodes: (i) Amélioration des locaux d’élevage par un crépissage et un lissage des façades externes et internes des murs de l’étable. Cette option de lutte doit être inévitablement accompagnée d’un nettoyage drastique de l’étable et de son pourtour. En considérant l’infection par Theileria annulata, cette option de lutte est la plus bénéfique. (ii) Application d’acaricides sur les animaux pendant la saison estivale ciblant les adultes. (iii) Application d’acaricides pendant l’automne pour la lutte contre les stades immatures. (iv) Application d’acaricides sur les murs : cette option a été proposée par plusieurs vétérinaires de terrain mais elle est seulement partiellement efficace parce que les nymphes pénètrent profondément dans les fissures et les crevasses. Elle doit être utilisée si l’infestation par les tiques est élevée ou s’il y a un risque élevé de maladies transmises par les tiques. (v) Détiquage manuel : c’est une technique qui n’est pas effective car les tiques peuvent se nourrir sur plusieurs autres espèces d’hôtes dans l’élevage. Cette option de lute peut induire une réduction de la population de tiques mais pas de l’incidence des maladies transmises par les tiques. (vi) Vaccination : cette option de lutte consiste à injecter la protéine Hd86, les essais ont montré des effets partiels sur les nymphes mais sans effets sur les tiques adultes. L’association de deux de ces options de lutte est recommandée dans les régions à forte intensité des vecteurs. Des études ultérieures sont nécessaires pour améliorer nos connaissances sur cette espèce dans la région du Maghreb puisque le nombre d’études publiées sur H. scupense dans la région du Maghreb est très réduit et la connaissance sur cette tique est fragmentaire.

          Translated abstract

          الزجاجي العين ( Hyalomma scupense ) (مرادف H. detritum ) هو نوع ثنائي الطور، أليف، مستبطن ، شائع في الماشية و بشكل ثانوي عند ذوات حوافر في مناطق أخرى بالمنطقة المغاربية. و ينقل هذه النوع العديد من الجراثيم ، منهما اثنين رئيسيين وهما : طفيلي الحمى المدارية ( Theileria annulata ) و طفيلي يرقان الخيول ( Theileria equi ). وينقل هذا النوع من القراد جراثيم أخرى نذكر منها : الانبلازما ( Anaplasma phagocytophilum ) و الإيرليخية البقرية ( Ehrlichia bovis ). الزجاجي العين ( H. scupense ) نوع شائع في المناطق شبه الرطبة وشبه القاحلة في العديد من أنحاء العالم، وخاصة في المغرب العربي. تم العثور على البالغين على جسم الحيوانات في الصيف، و تعلق اليرقات و الحوريات على مضيفاتها خلال الخريف، ولكن هناك فرقا اقليميا في دراسة الأحداث البيولوجية للزجاجي العين (H. scupense) . هناك تداخل بين المراحل الغير ناضجة و القراد البالغ، تؤدي هذه الظاهرة في بعض السياقات، الى تغيير كبير في وبائيات الأمراض المنقولة عبر القراد. يلتصق هذا النوع من القراد بشكل تفضيلي في الثديين الخلفين والفخذين. يمكن أن تصل شدة الإصابة إلى 130 قرادا بمتوسط عدد 60 من القراد. العجول هي 70 مرة أقل اصابة من بالغي الحيوانات. تتم المقاومة بستة طرق : (1) تحسين الاسطبلات من خلال التجصيص و صقل الواجهات الخارجية و الداخلية لجدران الحظيرة. يجب أن يقترن هذا الخيار حتما بتنظيف جذري للحظيرة و محيطها. اعتبارا للإصابة بطفيلي الحمى المدارية، خيار المقاومة هذا هو الأكثر فائدة. (2) استعمال مبيدات القراد على الحيوانات خلال موسم الصيف كي يستهدف البالغين من القراد. (3) استعمال مبيدات القراد في الخريف لمكافحة اليرقات و الشرانق. (4) رش مبيدات القراد على الجدران : وقد اقترح هذا الخيار من قبل العديد من الأطباء البياطرة و لكن فعاليتها نسبية لأن الشرانق تدخل بعمق في الصدوع والشقوق. ينبغي أن تستخدم هذه الطريقة إذا كانت نسبة الإصابة بالقراد مرتفعة أو إذا كان هناك خطرا كبيرا ناتجا عن وجود امراض منقولة عبر القراد. (5) قلع القراد باليد: هذه الطريقة غير ناجعة لان القراد يمكن أن يتغذى من العديد من الأنواع المضيفة الموجودة بالحضيرة. يمكن هذا الخيار من انخفاض في عدد القراد ولكن ليس في حالات الإصابة بالأمراض المنقولة عبر القراد. (6) التطعيم: يرتكز هذا الخيار علي حقن البروتين Hd86 و قد ابرزت التجارب وجود مفعول جزئي على الحوريات ولكن ليس له اي تأثير على كبار القراد. ينصح بجمع اثنين من هذه الخيارات للسيطرة في حالة وجود كثافة عالية للنواقل. هناك حاجة ماسة لدراسات إضافية حتى نحسن معرفتنا لهذا النوع في المنطقة المغاربية حيث عدد الدراسات المنشورة و المتعلقة بالزجاجي العين ( H. scupense ) في المنطقة المغاربية صغير جدا والمعرفة المتعلقة بهذا القراد مجزأة.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Tick control: thoughts on a research agenda.

          Tick control is critical to the control of tick borne disease, while the direct impact of ticks on livestock productivity is also well known. For livestock, tick control today rests overwhelmingly on the twin approaches of genetics and chemical acaricides, although the disadvantages and limitations of both are recognized. The achievement of the full potential of vaccination, the application of biocontrol agents and the coordinated management of the existing technologies all pose challenging research problems. Progress in many areas has been steady over the last decade, while the acquisition of molecular information has now reached a revolutionary stage. This is likely to have immediate impact on the identification of potential antigens for improved vaccines and novel targets for acaricide action. In many circumstances, the rate limiting step in making scientific progress will remain unchanged, namely the resource constraint on evaluating these appropriately in large animals. For other approaches, such as the use of biocontrol agents, the limitation is likely to be less in the identification of suitable agents than in their delivery in an efficient and cost effective way. Our scientific understanding of the molecular basis for the tick vector-tick borne disease interaction is in its infancy but the area is both challenging and, in the long term, likely to be of great practical importance. What is arguably the most difficult problem of all remains: the translation of laboratory research into the extremely diverse parasite control requirements of farming systems in a way that is practically useful.
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            In vivo evidence for the resistance of Theileria annulata to buparvaquone.

            The present study describes an outbreak of tropical theileriosis cases refractory to buparvaquone treatment, which occurred in a small-size dairy farm in Tunisia. Out of seven treated cows, four died in spite of repeated buparvaquone injections (2.5 and 5 mg kg(-1)) and the monitoring of the affected cows showed no improvement of the course of the disease with a consistent decrease in the haematocrit, the persistence of fever and an increased parasitaemia after treatment. Ticks were fed on a calf experimentally infected with one isolate established in culture from one of the cases and the resultant infected ticks ground up to generate a supernatant infected with the potentially resistant stock. This was used to experimentally infect three calves, and the clinical observations, post-buparvaquone treatment, showed an absence of the usual effect of buparvaquone treatment on the parasite Theileria annulata, such as the rapid decline of schizont index and parasitaemia and a rapid recovery from the disease. These results confirmed for the first time the occurrence of resistance to buparvaquone in the protozoan T. annulata. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Detection and identification of Ehrlichia spp. in ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco.

              A broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the detection of members of the family Anaplasmataceae in ticks in North Africa. A total of 418 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco, as well as 188 Rhipicephalus ticks from dogs and 52 Hyalomma ticks from bovines in Tunisia, were included in this study. Of 324 adult I. ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for Ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larvae, respectively, were positive. A large heterogeneity was observed in the nucleotide sequences. Partial sequences identical to that of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) were detected in I. ricinus and Hyalomma detritum, whereas partial sequences identical to that of Anaplasma platys were detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, variants of Anaplasma, provisionally designated Anaplasma-like, were predominant in the I. ricinus tick population in Maghreb. Otherwise, two variants of the genus Ehrlichia were detected in I. ricinus and H. detritum. Surprisingly, a variant of Wolbachia pipientis was evidenced from I. ricinus in Morocco. These results emphasized the potential risk of tick bites for human and animal populations in North Africa.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2014
                10 February 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Parasitologie, École Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de la Manouba 2020 Sidi Thabet Tunisia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: gharbim2000@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Article
                parasite130066 10.1051/parasite/2014002
                10.1051/parasite/2014002
                3917376
                24507485
                © M. Gharbi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 47, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Article

                maghreb, biology, vector, cattle, tick, hyalomma scupense, control

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