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      Lysophosphatidic Acid and Autotaxin-associated Effects on the Initiation and Progression of Colorectal Cancer

      1 , 2 , 3

      Cancers

      MDPI

      lysophosphatidic acid, colorectal cancer, inflammation, intestine

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          Abstract

          The intestinal epithelium interacts dynamically with the immune system to maintain its barrier function to protect the host, while performing the physiological roles in absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, water and minerals. The importance of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors in the gut has been progressively appreciated. LPA signaling modulates cell proliferation, invasion, adhesion, angiogenesis, and survival that can promote cancer growth and metastasis. These effects are equally important for the maintenance of the epithelial barrier in the gut, which forms the first line of defense against the milieu of potentially pathogenic stimuli. This review focuses on the LPA-mediated signaling that potentially contributes to inflammation and tumor formation in the gastrointestinal tract.

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          Most cited references 187

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The Hallmarks of Cancer

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              Cancer-related inflammation.

              The mediators and cellular effectors of inflammation are important constituents of the local environment of tumours. In some types of cancer, inflammatory conditions are present before a malignant change occurs. Conversely, in other types of cancer, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumours. Regardless of its origin, 'smouldering' inflammation in the tumour microenvironment has many tumour-promoting effects. It aids in the proliferation and survival of malignant cells, promotes angiogenesis and metastasis, subverts adaptive immune responses, and alters responses to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. The molecular pathways of this cancer-related inflammation are now being unravelled, resulting in the identification of new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                cancers
                Cancers
                MDPI
                2072-6694
                09 July 2019
                July 2019
                : 11
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Research Bldg. Room 201, 615 Michael Street, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; ccyun@ 123456emory.edu ; Tel.: +1-404-712-2865
                [2 ]Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
                [3 ]Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA 30322, USA
                Article
                cancers-11-00958
                10.3390/cancers11070958
                6678549
                31323936
                © 2019 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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