Alix Barbe 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Namya Mellouk 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Christelle Ramé 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Jérémy Grandhaye 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Karine Anger 5 , Marine Chahnamian 5 , Patrice Ganier 5 , Aurélien Brionne 6 , Antonella Riva 7 , Pascal Froment 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Joëlle Dupont 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , *
14 May 2020
In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23 th to 40 th weeks and quality at 33 th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger ( P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C ( P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells ( P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk ( P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.