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      Epidermal Immunity and Function: Origin in Neonatal Skin

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          Abstract

          The fascinating story of epidermal immunity begins in utero where the epidermal barrier derives from the ectoderm and evolves through carefully orchestrated biological processes, including periderm formation, keratinocyte differentiation, proliferation, cornification, and maturation, to generate a functional epidermis. Vernix caseosa derives from epidermal cells that mix with sebaceous lipids and coat the fetus during late gestation, likely to provide conditions for cornification. At birth, infants dramatically transition from aqueous conditions to a dry gaseous environment. The epidermal barrier begins to change within hours, exhibiting decreased hydration and low stratum corneum (SC) cohesion. The SC varied by gestational age (GA), transformed over the next 2–3 months, and differed considerably versus stable adult skin, as indicated by analysis of specific protein biomarkers. Regardless of gestational age, the increased infant SC proteins at 2–3 months after birth were involved in late differentiation, cornification, and filaggrin processing compared to adult skin. Additionally, the natural moisturizing factor (NMF), the product of filaggrin processing, was higher for infants than adults. This suggests that neonatal skin provides innate immunity and protection from environmental effects and promotes rapid, continued barrier development after birth. Functional genomic analysis showed abundant differences across biological processes for infant skin compared to adult skin. Gene expression for extracellular matrix, development, and fatty acid metabolism was higher for infant skin, while adult skin had increased expression of genes for the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis, antigen processing/presentation of immune function, and others. These findings provide descriptive information about infant epidermal immunity and its ability to support the newborn’s survival and growth, despite an environment laden with microbes, high oxygen tension, and irritants.

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          Most cited references133

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          clusterProfiler: an R package for comparing biological themes among gene clusters.

          Increasing quantitative data generated from transcriptomics and proteomics require integrative strategies for analysis. Here, we present an R package, clusterProfiler that automates the process of biological-term classification and the enrichment analysis of gene clusters. The analysis module and visualization module were combined into a reusable workflow. Currently, clusterProfiler supports three species, including humans, mice, and yeast. Methods provided in this package can be easily extended to other species and ontologies. The clusterProfiler package is released under Artistic-2.0 License within Bioconductor project. The source code and vignette are freely available at http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/clusterProfiler.html.
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            STRING v11: protein–protein association networks with increased coverage, supporting functional discovery in genome-wide experimental datasets

            Abstract Proteins and their functional interactions form the backbone of the cellular machinery. Their connectivity network needs to be considered for the full understanding of biological phenomena, but the available information on protein–protein associations is incomplete and exhibits varying levels of annotation granularity and reliability. The STRING database aims to collect, score and integrate all publicly available sources of protein–protein interaction information, and to complement these with computational predictions. Its goal is to achieve a comprehensive and objective global network, including direct (physical) as well as indirect (functional) interactions. The latest version of STRING (11.0) more than doubles the number of organisms it covers, to 5090. The most important new feature is an option to upload entire, genome-wide datasets as input, allowing users to visualize subsets as interaction networks and to perform gene-set enrichment analysis on the entire input. For the enrichment analysis, STRING implements well-known classification systems such as Gene Ontology and KEGG, but also offers additional, new classification systems based on high-throughput text-mining as well as on a hierarchical clustering of the association network itself. The STRING resource is available online at https://string-db.org/.
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              Parallel heatmaps with carefully designed annotation graphics are powerful for efficient visualization of patterns and relationships among high dimensional genomic data. Here we present the ComplexHeatmap package that provides rich functionalities for customizing heatmaps, arranging multiple parallel heatmaps and including user-defined annotation graphics. We demonstrate the power of ComplexHeatmap to easily reveal patterns and correlations among multiple sources of information with four real-world datasets.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Mol Biosci
                Front Mol Biosci
                Front. Mol. Biosci.
                Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-889X
                08 June 2022
                2022
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy , University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, OH, United States
                [2] 2 The Procter and Gamble Company , Cincinnati, OH, United States
                [3] 3 Perinatal Institute , Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center , Cincinnati, OH, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Danuta Gutowska-Owsiak, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of University of Gdańsk and Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland

                Reviewed by: Leopold Eckhart, Medical University of Vienna, Austria

                Philip Wertz, The University of Iowa, United States

                *Correspondence: Marty O. Visscher, visschmo@ 123456ucmail.uc.edu

                This article was submitted to Cellular Biochemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

                Article
                894496
                10.3389/fmolb.2022.894496
                9215705
                bc0c4471-ebf5-4712-acd8-9c4a33bd47d1
                Copyright © 2022 Visscher, Carr and Narendran.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Categories
                Molecular Biosciences
                Review

                epidermal barrier,immunity,stratum corneum,neonatal,skin,proteomics,genomics,vernix caseosa

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