The lunar surface allows a unique way forward in cosmology, to go beyond current limits. The far side provides an unexcelled radio-quiet environment for probing the dark ages via 21 cm interferometry to seek elusive clues on the nature of the infinitesimal fluctuations that seeded galaxy formation. Far-infrared telescopes in cold and dark lunar polar craters will probe back to the first months of the Big Bang and study associated spectral distortions in the CMB. Optical and IR megatelescopes will image the first star clusters in the universe and seek biosignatures in the atmospheres of unprecedented numbers of nearby habitable zone exoplanets. The goals are compelling and a stable lunar platform will enable construction of telescopes that can access trillions of modes in the sky, providing the key to exploration of our cosmic origins.