Improvement of MRI diagnostic accuracy in the study of the hypothalamic-pituitary region provides precise anatomic details. In pituitary dwarfism, MRI reveals severe sella/pituitary gland and stalk hypoplasia with or without posterior pituitary ectopia, and empty sella, and this more frequently in patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain these findings: traumatic stalk transection during breech delivery, and abnormal embryonic development of the pituitary gland. The association between neuroradiological findings and type/severity of endocrine alteration has not yet been clarified. In diabetes insipidus, MRI findings are normal picture, posterior lobe not visible, and thickened stalk (as expression of preclinical/initial histocytosis). Patients with central precocious puberty or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism rarely show morphologic abnormalities (hamartoma of the tuber cinereum, partially empty sella). So far, MRI permits one to identify morphologic pictures in diseases previously considered ‘idiopathic’.