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      Gendered associations of English morphology

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          Morphological systems arise from language experience encoded in the lexicon, which includes much statistical and episodic information (see Pierrehumbert, 2006; Rácz, Pierrehumbert, Hay, & Papp, 2015). Lexical statistics have been successfully applied in theories of morphological learning and change ( Bybee, 1995), but there remains much unexplained variation in speakers’ morphological choices and patterns of generalization. A promising route for explanation is the role of social-indexical information in shaping morphological systems. We present a quantitative experimental study on the relationship of morphological perception to speaker gender, a highly salient aspect of the linguistic context that is known to be important in language variation and change. We show that people have significant success in associating English words with speaker gender, and that their implicit knowledge generalizes to gender associations of novel words (pseudowords) on the basis of their component morphemes. By analyzing judgments of morphological decomposition in conjunction with these indexical judgments, we also make inferences about the cognitive architecture for social-indexical effects in morphology.

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          Shifting paradigms: gradient structure in morphology.

          Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words. A vigorous ongoing debate surrounds the question of how such internal structure is best accounted for: by means of lexical entries and deterministic symbolic rules, or by means of probabilistic subsymbolic networks implicitly encoding structural similarities in connection weights. In this review, we separate the question of subsymbolic versus symbolic implementation from the question of deterministic versus probabilistic structure. We outline a growing body of evidence, mostly external to the above debate, indicating that morphological structure is indeed intrinsically graded. By allowing probability into the grammar, progress can be made towards solving some long-standing puzzles in morphological theory.
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            The effect of experience on the perception and representation of dialect variants

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              Resonance in an exemplar-based lexicon: The emergence of social identity and phonology

               Keith Johnson (2006)

                Author and article information

                Laboratory Phonology: Journal of the Association for Laboratory Phonology
                Ubiquity Press
                05 September 2018
                : 9
                : 1
                [1 ]Department of Linguistics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, US
                [2 ]Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                Copyright: © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See

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