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      Long-term safety and efficacy of tobramycin in the management of cystic fibrosis

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          Abstract

          Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal inherited disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR) gene whose mortality is conditioned by a progressive decline in lung function. Bacterial infections play a key role in this decline. Chronic bacterial infection in CF patients varies over time and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum is a marker of poor prognosis. P. aeruginosa is eradicated from the airways using inhaled antibiotics administered in various formulations and devices. Antipseudomonal antibiotics have extended the survival of CF patients to 40 years. Tobramycin is a bactericidal aminoglycoside antibiotic with demonstrated activity against gram-negative microorganisms. Initially, the drug was administered as an inhaled parenteral solution. Subsequently, a specific tobramycin inhalation solution was developed. PulmoSphere™ technology enables dry tobramycin powder to be formulated for inhalation (tobramycin inhalation powder) using a small and portable capsule-based breath-activated device (T-326). Chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa is the main indication for aerosol antibiotic therapy. The American Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, European guidelines, and Spanish consensus guidelines provide different recommendations for eradication.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other predictors of mortality and morbidity in young children with cystic fibrosis.

          We conducted a registry-based study to determine prognostic indicators of 8-year mortality and morbidity in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients ages 1-5 years from the 1990 U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) National Patient Registry served as the study cohort (N = 3,323). Registry data provided information on baseline characteristics in 1990, 8-year mortality, and clinical outcomes in 1998.P. aeruginosa respiratory infection was found to be a major predictor of morbidity and mortality. The 8-year risk of death was 2.6 times higher in patients who had respiratory cultures positive for P. aeruginosa in 1990 (95% confidence interval 1.6, 4.1) than in children without P. aeruginosa in their respiratory cultures. Culture-positive patients in 1990 also had a significantly lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) and weight percentile at follow-up, and they had an increased risk of continued P. aeruginosa respiratory infection and hospitalization for acute respiratory exacerbation in 1998. Among the other predictors of increased morbidity and mortality were lower baseline weight percentiles and number of CF-related hospitalizations during the baseline year.These findings confirm reports from previous smaller studies of outcomes among young children with CF, and highlight the potential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of young patients with CF through early intervention. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: chronic medications for maintenance of lung health.

            Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disease characterized by dehydration of the airway surface liquid and impaired mucociliary clearance. As a result, individuals with the disease have difficulty clearing pathogens from the lung and experience chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation. Death is usually a result of respiratory failure. Newly introduced therapies and aggressive management of the lung disease have resulted in great improvements in length and quality of life, with the result that the median expected survival age has reached 36 years. However, as the number of treatments expands, the medical regimen becomes increasingly burdensome in time, money, and health resources. Hence, it is important that treatments should be recommended on the basis of available evidence of efficacy and safety. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation therefore established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for each therapy and to provide guidance for the prescription of these therapies. The committee members developed and refined a series of questions related to drug therapies used in the maintenance of pulmonary function. We addressed the questions in one of three ways, based on available evidence: (1) commissioned systematic review, (2) modified systematic review, or (3) summary of existing Cochrane reviews. It is hoped that the guidelines provided in this article will facilitate the appropriate application of these treatments to improve and extend the lives of all individuals with cystic fibrosis.
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              Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines. Chronic medications for maintenance of lung health.

              Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by abnormal airways secretions, chronic endobronchial infection, and progressive airway obstruction. The use of medications to slow the progression of lung disease has led to significant improvement in survival. An evidence review of chronic medications for CF lung disease was performed in 2007 to provide guidance to clinicians in evaluating and selecting appropriate treatment for individuals with this disease. We have undertaken a new review of the literature to update the recommendations, including consideration of new medications and additional evidence on previously reviewed therapies. A multidisciplinary committee of experts in CF pulmonary care was established to review the evidence for use of chronic medications for CF lung disease and make treatment recommendations. Published evidence for chronic lung therapies was systematically reviewed and resulting treatment recommendations were graded based on the United States Preventive Services Task Force scheme. These guidelines provide up-to-date evidence of safety and efficacy of chronic treatments of CF lung disease, including the use of novel therapies that have not previously been included in CF pulmonary guidelines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                12 March 2015
                : 11
                : 407-415
                Affiliations
                Pulmonology Department, La Princesa Institute for Health Research, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Emma Vázquez-Espinosa, Pulmonology Department, La Princesa Institute for Health Research, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, c/Diego Leon, 62, 28006, Madrid, Spain, Tel +34 91 5202277, Email evazqueze@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-11-407
                10.2147/TCRM.S75208
                4362982
                © 2015 Vázquez-Espinosa et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                cystic fibrosis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, tobramycin, chronic infection, inhaled antibiotic

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