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Salmonella enterica bacteraemia: a multi-national population-based cohort study

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      BackgroundSalmonella enterica is an important emerging cause of invasive infections worldwide. However, population-based data are limited. The objective of this study was to define the occurrence of S. enterica bacteremia in a large international population and to evaluate temporal and regional differences.MethodsWe conducted population-based laboratory surveillance for all salmonella bacteremias in six regions (annual population at risk 7.7 million residents) in Finland, Australia, Denmark, and Canada during 2000-2007.ResultsA total of 622 cases were identified for an annual incidence of 1.02 per 100,000 population. The incidence of typhoidal (serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi) and non-typhoidal (other serotypes) disease was 0.21 and 0.81 per 100,000/year. There was major regional and moderate seasonal and year to year variability with an increased incidence observed in the latter years of the study related principally to increasing rates of non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremias. Advancing age and male gender were significant risk factors for acquiring non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia. In contrast, typhoidal salmonella bacteremia showed a decreasing incidence with advancing age and no gender-related excess risk.ConclusionsSalmonella enterica is an important emerging pathogen and regional determinants of risk merits further investigation.

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      Most cited references 37

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      Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya.

      There are few epidemiologic data on invasive bacterial infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. We studied every acute pediatric admission to a rural district hospital in Kenya to examine the prevalence, incidence, types, and outcome of community-acquired bacteremia. Between August 1998 and July 2002, we cultured blood on admission from 19,339 inpatients and calculated the incidence of bacteremia on the basis of the population served by the hospital. Of a total of 1783 infants who were under 60 days old, 228 had bacteremia (12.8 percent), as did 866 of 14,787 children who were 60 or more days of age (5.9 percent). Among infants who were under 60 days old, Escherichia coli and group B streptococci predominated among a broad range of isolates (14 percent and 11 percent, respectively). Among infants who were 60 or more days of age, Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontyphoidal salmonella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and E. coli accounted for more than 70 percent of isolates. The minimal annual incidence of community-acquired bacteremia was estimated at 1457 cases per 100,000 children among infants under a year old, 1080 among children under 2 years, and 505 among children under 5 years. Of all in-hospital deaths, 26 percent were in children with community-acquired bacteremia. Of 308 deaths in children with bacteremia, 103 (33.4 percent) occurred on the day of admission and 217 (70.5 percent) within two days. Community-acquired bacteremia is a major cause of death among children at a rural sub-Saharan district hospital, a finding that highlights the need for prevention and for overcoming the political and financial barriers to widespread use of existing vaccines for bacterial diseases. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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        Epidemics of invasive Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis and S. enterica Serovar typhimurium infection associated with multidrug resistance among adults and children in Malawi.

        Nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) have become the most common cause of bacteremia in tropical Africa, particularly among susceptible children and HIV-infected adults. We describe 4956 episodes of NTS bacteremia (2439 episodes in adults and 2517 episodes in children) that occurred in Blantyre, Malawi, during the 7-year period 1998-2004. A total of 75% of the cases of NTS bacteremia were due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and 21% were due to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Epidemic increases in the incidence of NTS bacteremia were seen sequentially, occurring first among cases caused by S. Enteritidis and then among cases caused by S. Typhimurium. Increased incidence of bacteremia was temporally associated with the acquisition of multidrug resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol by each serovar and occurred while the incidence of infection due to other common bloodstream pathogens remained constant. These epidemics were observed among adults and children. A seasonal pattern was also seen, with increased incidence during and after the rainy season. The median age of the patients was 32 years among adults and 22 months among children. Acquisition of multidrug-resistant infection was not associated with an increased case-fatality rate among children (22%), and the case-fatality rate among adults showed a significant trend toward decreasing (from 29% to 20%). These data have important implications for the treatment of severe febrile illness in adults and children in tropical Africa. Further understanding of the molecular basis of these epidemics of multidrug-resistant NTS infection, including ongoing whole-genome sequencing of multidrug-resistant isolates, will yield important tools for the study of NTS pathogenesis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention.
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          Typhoid fever in children aged less than 5 years.

          Calculation of the incidence of typhoid fever during preschool years is important to define the optimum age of immunisation and the choice of vaccines for public-health programmes in developing countries. Hospital-based studies have suggested that children younger than 5 years do not need vaccination against typhoid fever, but this view needs to be re-examined in community-based longitudinal studies. We undertook a prospective follow-up study of residents of a low-income urban area of Delhi, India, with active surveillance for case detection. A baseline census was undertaken in 1995. Between Nov 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 1996, we visited 8172 residents of 1820 households in Kalkaji, Delhi, twice weekly to detect febrile cases. Blood samples were obtained from febrile patients, and those who tested positive for Salmonella typhi were treated with ciprofloxacin. 63 culture-positive typhoid fever cases were detected. Of these, 28 (44%) were in children aged under 5 years. The incidence rate of typhoid per 1000 person-years was 27.3 at age under 5 years, 11.7 at 5-19 years, and 1.1 between 19 and 40 years. The difference in the incidence of typhoid fever between those under 5 years and those aged 5-19 years (15.6 per 1000 person-years [95% CI 4.7-26.5]), and those aged 19-40 years (26.2 [16.0-36.3]) was significant (p<0.001 for both). The difference between the incidence of typhoid at 5-19 years and the incidence at 19-40 years was also significant (10.6 [6.3-14.8], p<0.001). Morbidity in those under 5 and in older people was similar in terms of duration of fever, signs and symptoms, and need for hospital admission. Our findings challenge the common view that typhoid fever is a disorder of school-age children and of adults. Typhoid is a common and significant cause of morbidity between 1 and 5 years of age. The optimum age of typhoid immunisation and the choice of vaccines needs to be reassessed.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Departments of Medicine and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
            [2 ]Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
            [3 ]Infectious Diseases Unit and Microbiology Department, The Canberra Hospital and School of Clinical Medicine, Australian National University, Woden, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
            [4 ]Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Hospital Infection Program, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
            [5 ]Department of Microbiology-Infectious Diseases, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada
            [6 ]Microbiology Laboratory, Vancouver Island Health Authority, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
            BMC Infect Dis
            BMC Infectious Diseases
            BioMed Central
            14 April 2010
            : 10
            : 95
            Copyright ©2010 Laupland et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Research Article

            Infectious disease & Microbiology


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