1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Regulating the Enteric Nervous System against Obesity in Mice by Electroacupuncture

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background and Objectives: The enteric nervous system (ENS) dominates the onset of obesity and has been shown to regulate nutrient absorption and energy metabolism. Methods and Study Design: This study was performed to investigate the role of electroacupuncture in regulating ENS function in obese mice. Obese mice were obtained by high-fat diet. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and neurotransmitter analysis were used for this purpose. Results: Body weight, Lee index, serum lipid, leptin, and adiponectin levels, and other basic indices were significantly ameliorated after electroacupuncture intervention. The pathological ENS scores, serum neurotransmitter levels, and intestinal transit rate were markedly changed in obese mice. Moreover, electroacupuncture promoted the diversity of gut microbiota. No significant differences were observed 21 and 28 days after electroacupuncture. Conclusions: These results suggested ENS may be a new treatment approach to obesity.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The epidemiology of obesity.

          In the United States, obesity among adults and overweight among children and adolescents have increased markedly since 1980. Among adults, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or greater. Among children and adolescents, overweight is defined as a body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile of a specified reference population. In 2003-2004, 32.9% of adults 20-74 years old were obese and more than 17% of teenagers (age, 12-19 y) were overweight. Obesity varies by age and sex, and by race-ethnic group among adult women. A higher body weight is associated with an increased incidence of a number of conditions, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and with an increased risk of disability. Obesity is associated with a modestly increased risk of all-cause mortality. However, the net effect of overweight and obesity on morbidity and mortality is difficult to quantify. It is likely that a gene-environment interaction, in which genetically susceptible individuals respond to an environment with increased availability of palatable energy-dense foods and reduced opportunities for energy expenditure, contributes to the current high prevalence of obesity. Evidence suggests that even without reaching an ideal weight, a moderate amount of weight loss can be beneficial in terms of reducing levels of some risk factors, such as blood pressure. Many studies of dietary and behavioral treatments, however, have shown that maintenance of weight loss is difficult. The social and economic costs of obesity and of attempts to prevent or to treat obesity are high.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Analysis of gut microbial regulation of host gene expression along the length of the gut and regulation of gut microbial ecology through MyD88

            Background The gut microbiota has profound effects on host physiology but local host–microbial interactions in the gut are only poorly characterised and are likely to vary from the sparsely colonised duodenum to the densely colonised colon. Microorganisms are recognised by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule MyD88. Methods To identify host responses induced by gut microbiota along the length of the gut and whether these required MyD88, transcriptional profiles of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were compared from germ-free and conventionally raised wild-type and Myd88−/− mice. The gut microbial ecology was assessed by 454-based pyrosequencing and viruses were analysed by PCR. Results The gut microbiota modulated the expression of a large set of genes in the small intestine and fewer genes in the colon but surprisingly few microbiota-regulated genes required MyD88 signalling. However, MyD88 was essential for microbiota-induced colonic expression of the antimicrobial genes Reg3β and Reg3γ in the epithelium, and Myd88 deficiency was associated with both a shift in bacterial diversity and a greater proportion of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. In addition, conventionally raised Myd88−/− mice had increased expression of antiviral genes in the colon, which correlated with norovirus infection in the colonic epithelium. Conclusion This study provides a detailed description of tissue-specific host transcriptional responses to the normal gut microbiota along the length of the gut and demonstrates that the absence of MyD88 alters gut microbial ecology.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the human infant gut microbiota is strongly influenced by sample processing and PCR primer choice

              Background Characterisation of the bacterial composition of the gut microbiota is increasingly carried out with a view to establish the role of different bacterial species in causation or prevention of disease. It is thus essential that the methods used to determine the microbial composition are robust. Here, several widely used molecular techniques were compared to establish the optimal methods to assess the bacterial composition in faecal samples from babies, before weaning. Results The bacterial community profile detected in the faeces of infants is highly dependent on the methodology used. Bifidobacteria were the most abundant bacteria detected at 6 weeks in faeces from two initially breast-fed babies using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH), in agreement with data from previous culture-based studies. Using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach, however, we found that the detection of bifidobacteria in particular crucially depended on the optimisation of the DNA extraction method, and the choice of primers used to amplify the V1–V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes prior to subsequent sequence analysis. Bifidobacteria were only well represented among amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences when mechanical disruption (bead-beating) procedures for DNA extraction were employed together with optimised “universal” PCR primers. These primers incorporate degenerate bases at positions where mismatches to bifidobacteria and other bacterial taxa occur. The use of a DNA extraction kit with no bead-beating step resulted in a complete absence of bifidobacteria in the sequence data, even when using the optimised primers. Conclusions This work emphasises the importance of sample processing methodology to downstream sequencing results and illustrates the value of employing multiple approaches for determining microbiota composition. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0087-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2020
                July 2020
                09 June 2020
                : 27
                : 1
                : 48-57
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Fundamental Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China
                bDepartment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zunyi Medical and Pharmaceutical College, Zunyi, China
                Author notes
                *Prof. Wei-Jun Ding, Department of Fundamental Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075 (China), dingweijun@cdutcm.edu.cn
                Article
                506483 Neuroimmunomodulation 2020;27:48–57
                10.1159/000506483
                32516787
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article