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      Sustained low efficiency dialysis using a single-pass batch system in acute kidney injury - a randomized interventional trial: the REnal Replacement Therapy Study in Intensive Care Unit PatiEnts

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a high mortality of up to 60%. The mode of renal replacement therapy (intermittent versus continuous) has no impact on patient survival. Sustained low efficiency dialysis using a single-pass batch dialysis system (SLED-BD) has recently been introduced for the treatment of dialysis-dependent AKI. To date, however, only limited evidence is available in the comparison of SLED-BD versus continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with AKI.

          Methods

          Prospective, randomized, interventional, clinical study at a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Between 1 April 2006 and 31 January 2009, 232 AKI patients who underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT) were randomized in the study. Follow-up was assessed until 30 August 2009. Patients were either assigned to 12-h SLED-BD or to 24-h predilutional CVVH. Both therapies were performed at a blood flow of 100 to 120 ml/min.

          Results

          115 patients were treated with SLED-BD (total number of treatments n = 817) and 117 patients with CVVH (total number of treatments n = 877).The primary outcome measure, 90-day mortality, was similar between groups (SLED: 49.6% vs. CVVH: 55.6%, P = 0.43). Hemodynamic stability did not differ between SLED-BD and CVVH, whereas patients in the SLED-BD group had significantly fewer days of mechanical ventilation (17.7 ± 19.4 vs. 20.9 ± 19.8, P = 0.047) and fewer days in the ICU (19.6 ± 20.1 vs. 23.7 ± 21.9, P = 0.04). Patients treated with SLED needed fewer blood transfusions (1,375 ± 2,573 ml vs. 1,976 ± 3,316 ml, P = 0.02) and had a substantial reduction in nursing time spent for renal replacement therapy ( P < 0.001) resulting in lower costs.

          Conclusions

          SLED-BD was associated with reduced nursing time and lower costs compared to CVVH at similar outcomes. In the light of limited health care resources, SLED-BD offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of AKI in ICU patients.

          Trial registration

          ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00322530

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          Most cited references22

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          Acute kidney injury increases risk of ESRD among elderly.

          Risk for ESRD among elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been studied in a large, representative sample. This study aimed to determine incidence rates and hazard ratios for developing ESRD in elderly individuals, with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD), who had AKI. In the 2000 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, clinical conditions were identified using Medicare claims; ESRD treatment information was obtained from ESRD registration during 2 yr of follow-up. Our cohort of 233,803 patients were hospitalized in 2000, were aged > or = 67 yr on discharge, did not have previous ESRD or AKI, and were Medicare-entitled for > or = 2 yr before discharge. In this cohort, 3.1% survived to discharge with a diagnosis of AKI, and 5.3 per 1000 developed ESRD. Among patients who received treatment for ESRD, 25.2% had a previous history of AKI. After adjustment for age, gender, race, diabetes, and hypertension, the hazard ratio for developing ESRD was 41.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.6 to 49.1) for patients with AKI and CKD relative to those without kidney disease, 13.0 (95% CI 10.6 to 16.0) for patients with AKI and without previous CKD, and 8.4 (95% CI 7.4 to 9.6) for patients with CKD and without AKI. In summary, elderly individuals with AKI, particularly those with previously diagnosed CKD, are at significantly increased risk for ESRD, suggesting that episodes of AKI may accelerate progression of renal disease.
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            Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: a multicentre randomised trial.

            Whether continuous renal replacement therapy is better than intermittent haemodialysis for the treatment of acute renal failure in critically ill patients is controversial. In this study, we compare the effect of intermittent haemodialysis and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration on survival rates in critically ill patients with acute renal failure as part of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. Our prospective, randomised, multicentre study took place between Oct 1, 1999, and March 3, 2003, in 21 medical or multidisciplinary intensive-care units from university or community hospitals in France. Guidelines were provided to achieve optimum haemodynamic tolerance and effectiveness of solute removal in both groups. The two groups were treated with the same polymer membrane and bicarbonate-based buffer. 360 patients were randomised, and the primary endpoint was 60-day survival based on an intention-to-treat analysis. Rate of survival at 60-days did not differ between the groups (32% in the intermittent haemodialysis group versus 33% in the continuous renal replacement therapy group [95 % CI -8.8 to 11.1,]), or at any other time. These data suggest that, provided strict guidelines to improve tolerance and metabolic control are used, almost all patients with acute renal failure as part of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome can be treated with intermittent haemodialysis.
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              The effect of acute renal failure on mortality. A cohort analysis.

              To determine if the high mortality in acute renal failure is explained by underlying illnesses (comorbidity). Cohort analytic study. An 826-bed general hospital providing primary, secondary, and tertiary care. From 16,248 inpatients undergoing radiocontrast procedures between 1987 and 1989, we identified 183 index subjects who developed contrast media-associated renal failure (defined as an increase in serum creatinine level of at least 25%, to at least 177 micromol/L [2 mg/dL], within 2 days of receiving contrast material) and 174 paired subjects, matched for age and baseline serum creatinine level, who underwent similar contrast procedures without developing renal failure. Death during hospitalization. The mortality rate in subjects without renal failure was 7%, compared with 34% in the corresponding index subjects with renal failure (odds ratio, 6.5; P<.001). After adjusting for differences in comorbidity, renal failure was associated with an odds ratio of dying of 5.5. Subjects who died after developing renal failure had complicated clinical courses characterized by sepsis, bleeding, delirium, and respiratory failure; most of these complications developed after the onset of renal failure. Deaths from renal causes were rare. The high mortality rate in acute renal failure is not explained by the underlying conditions alone. Renal failure appears to increase the risk of developing severe nonrenal complications that lead to death and should not be regarded as a treatable complication of serious illness.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Crit Care
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central
                1364-8535
                1466-609X
                2012
                27 July 2012
                : 16
                : 4
                : R140
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, Giessen 35392, Germany
                [3 ]Section of Medical Statistics, University of Applied Science, Wiesenstrasse 14, Giessen-Friedberg 35390, Germany
                [4 ]Department of Anesthesiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
                [5 ]Department of Endocrinology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
                Article
                cc11445
                10.1186/cc11445
                3580725
                22839577
                bfe8146f-7308-4f40-a41b-222264887f71
                Copyright ©2012 Schwenger et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 9 November 2011
                : 31 May 2012
                : 27 July 2012
                Categories
                Research

                Emergency medicine & Trauma
                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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