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      Devolution and Devaluation of Fecal Leukocyte Testing : A 100-Year History

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3

      JAMA Internal Medicine

      American Medical Association (AMA)

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          Most cited references 9

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          ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults.

          Acute diarrheal infections are a common health problem globally and among both individuals in the United States and traveling to developing world countries. Multiple modalities including antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies have been used to address these common infections. Information on treatment, prevention, diagnostics, and the consequences of acute diarrhea infection has emerged and helps to inform clinical management. In this ACG Clinical Guideline, the authors present an evidence-based approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of acute diarrhea infection in both US-based and travel settings.
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            2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea

            These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
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              Fecal screening tests in the approach to acute infectious diarrhea: a scientific overview.

              To evaluate the value of fecal leukocytes, fecal occult blood, fecal lactoferrin and combination of fecal leukocytes with clinical data in the workup of patients with inflammatory diarrhea. A systematic literature search in all languages using MEDLINE (1970 to 1994), reference lists of articles primarily retrieved and of review articles and correspondence with experts in the field. The search identified 2603 references, 81 of which were deemed relevant on the basis of prespecified selection criteria. Of these 25 contained sufficient data for further analysis and thus were finally included. All data from the selected articles were extracted by one observer whereas the second reviewer checked these data for accuracy. True positive rates and false positive rates were calculated from each 2 x 2 table. The study summarizes the diagnostic accuracy of the signaled tests as predictors of inflammatory diarrhea as defined by stool culture (the reference test). Plots of true positive rates against false positive rates demonstrated widely scattered points, indicating heterogeneity. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve was fitted to the data with the use of logistic transforms and weighted least squares linear regression. Of the 25 studies analyzed 38 data points were used to construct summary receiver operating characteristic curves for index tests. Fecal lactoferrin was the most accurate index test. Fecal leukocytes showed the lowest performance as assessed by the area under the curve. Occult blood and combination of fecal leukocytes with clinical data yielded intermediate curves. A limited number of studies (fecal lactoferrin, and fecal leukocytes with clinical data) and methodologic flaws identified in the assessed studies must be solved in future primary studies to improve the usefulness of the metaanalytic approach used here.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JAMA Internal Medicine
                JAMA Intern Med
                American Medical Association (AMA)
                2168-6106
                September 01 2018
                September 01 2018
                : 178
                : 9
                : 1155
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas
                [2 ]Parkland Health and Hospital Systems, Dallas, Texas
                [3 ]Division of Gastroenterology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas
                Article
                10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.3150
                © 2018

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