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      Pretreatment with Nalbuphine Prevents Sufentanil-Induced Cough During the Anesthesia Induction: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          Sufentanil-induced cough is frequent during the induction of anesthesia. The aim of this research was to assess the influence of pretreatment with nalbuphine on sufentanil-induced cough.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 210 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II patients who are 18–70 years old and scheduled for elective surgery were randomly divided into two groups. Group N was pretreated with 0.3 mg/kg nalbuphine at 150 s before induction with sufentanil, and Group C received the same volume of normal saline as the placebo. We assessed the incidence and severity of cough 2 minutes after sufentanil administration. We also recorded the hemodynamic changes and side effects of sufentanil after sufentanil administration.


          No patients had cough in group N, and 30 patients had cough in group C (degree of cough: mild 8; moderate 10; severe 12). The incidence and severity of cough in group N were significantly lower than those in group C.


          Pretreatment with 0.3 mg/kg nalbuphine significantly suppressed the incidence and intensity of sufentanil-induced cough.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Intravenous lidocaine and ephedrine, but not propofol, suppress fentanyl-induced cough.

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lidocaine, propofol and ephedrine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough. One hundred and eighteen patients were randomly assigned into four groups and the following medications were given intravenously: patients in Group I (n = 31) received normal saline 2 mL, Group II (n = 29) received lidocaine 2 mg.kg(-1), Group III (n = 30) received propofol 0.6 mg.kg(-1) and Group IV (n = 28) received ephedrine 5 mg. At one minute after the study medication, fentanyl 2.5 microg.kg(-1) was given intravenously within two seconds. The occurrence of cough and vital sign profiles were recorded within two minutes after fentanyl bolus by an anesthesiologist blinded to study design. Sixty-five percent of patients in the placebo group had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in Groups II (14%) and IV (21%). Although a numerically lower frequency of cough was noted in Group III (37%), it was not statistically different from that of the placebo group. SpO(2) decreased significantly in patients of Group III compared to placebo; one patient experienced hypoxemia necessitating mask ventilation. Patients in Group III showed a decrease in heart rate and systolic blood pressure (2 beats.min(-1) and 8 mmHg vs baseline). Patients in Group IV showed an increase in both measurements (5 beats.min(-1) and 8 mmHg vs baseline). No truncal rigidity was observed throughout the study. Intravenous lidocaine 2 mg.kg(-1) or ephedrine 5 mg, but not propofol 0.6 mg.kg(-1), was effective in preventing fentanyl-induced cough. The results provide a convenient method to decrease fentanyl-induced cough.
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            Salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate suppress coughing induced by iv fentanyl.

            Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, is a popular choice amongst anesthesiologists in the operating room. Preinduction iv fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28-45% of patients. Coughing due to fentanyl is not always benign and at times may be explosive requiring immediate intervention. We have studied the role of aerosol inhalation of salbutamol, beclomethasone and sodium chromoglycate in preventing fentanyl induced coughing and have compared their efficacy. Two hundred patients aged 18-60 yr, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into four groups of 50 each. Group I served as control, while Groups II, III and IV received an aerosol inhalation of salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate 15 min prior to entering the operating room. Following iv fentanyl (2 micro g x kg(-1)) the incidence of cough was recorded and graded as mild (1-2), moderate (3-5) and severe (> 5) depending on the number of coughs observed. Results were analyzed using 'z' and Fischer's Exact test. A P value of /= 0.05). The use of salbutamol, beclomethasone or sodium chromoglycate aerosol 15 min prior to iv fentanyl administration minimizes fentanyl-induced coughing.
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              Tracheal constriction by morphine and by fentanyl in man.

               T Hirano,  I Yasuda,  T Yusa (1978)
              The effects of morphine and fentanyl on tracheal smooth muscle tone were studied in 38 patients during induction of anesthesia. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure was used to measure tracheal tone. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide, 70 per cent in oxygen, and pancuronium and ventilation was controlled with a respirator. Morphine, 0.5 mg/kg, produced a biphasic response, initially causing tracheal dilatation and then tracheal constriction. Ten minutes after morphine injection, cuff pressure increased to significantly (21 +/- 8 per cent) above control. Morphine-induced tracheal constriction could be completely blocked by the prior administration of atropine, 0.5 mg. Fentanyl, 0.006 mg/kg, also produced significant tracheal constriction, cuff pressures increasing to 44 +/- 11 per cent above control at 10 min. Fentanyl-induced tracheal constriction could be blocked by pretreatment with droperidol, 0.25 mg/kg. At equianalgesic doses, morphine and fentanyl produced similar tracheal constriction.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                14 April 2020
                : 16
                : 281-286
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University , Hefei 230022, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Anqing Hospital of Anhui Medical University , Anqing 246003, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yao Lu Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Tel +86 55162922057 Email luyao-mz@163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2020 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 17, Pages: 6
                This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81770295).
                Original Research


                anesthesia, cough, sufentanil, nalbuphine


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