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The Kraus representation for the dynamics of open quantum systems

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      Abstract

      The necessity and usefulness of considering the interaction of a quantum system with the environment when describing its time evolution have been recognized in several branches of physics and of other sciences. The Kraus' representation is a general and succinct approach to describe such open system dynamics in a wide range of relevant physical scenarios. In this article, by abdicating from the generality of the formalism of quantum operations and thus avoiding its associated complications, we show in a simple manner how one can obtain the Kraus representation using basically the closed system (system plus environment) unitary dynamics and the partial trace function. The example of a two-level atom interacting with the vacuum of the electromagnetic field is regarded for the sake of instantiating this formalism, which is then applied to study the time evolution of the atom's quantum coherence.

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      Rydberg Atoms

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        Magneto-optical trapping of a diatomic molecule

        Laser cooling and trapping are central to modern atomic physics. The workhorse technique in cold-atom physics is the magneto-optical trap (MOT), which combines laser cooling with a restoring force from radiation pressure. For a variety of atomic species, MOTs can capture and cool large numbers of particles to ultracold temperatures (<1 mK); this has enabled the study of a wide range of phenomena from optical clocks to ultracold collisions whilst also serving as the ubiquitous starting point for further cooling into the regime of quantum degeneracy. Magneto-optical trapping of molecules could provide a similarly powerful starting point for the study and manipulation of ultracold molecular gases. Here, we demonstrate three-dimensional magneto-optical trapping of a diatomic molecule, strontium monofluoride (SrF), at a temperature of approximately 2.5 mK. This method is expected to be viable for a significant number of diatomic species. Such chemical diversity is desired for the wide array of existing and proposed experiments which employ molecules for applications ranging from precision measurement, to quantum simulation and quantum information, to ultracold chemistry.
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          Quantum Information Theory

           Mark Wilde (2013)
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            Journal
            1510.09081

            Quantum physics & Field theory

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