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      Global Fluoroquinolone Resistance Epidemiology and Implictions for Clinical Use

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      Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriaceae causing community acquired or healthcare associated urinary tract infections and intraabdominal infections, exceeding 50% in some parts of the world, particularly in Asia. One to two-thirds of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases were fluoroquinolone resistant too. Furthermore, fluoroquinolones select for methicillin resistance in Staphylococci. Neisseria gonorrhoeae acquired fluoroquinolone resistance rapidly; actual resistance rates are highly variable and can be as high as almost 100%, particularly in Asia, whereas resistance rates in Europe and North America range from <10% in rural areas to >30% in established sexual networks. In general, the continued increase in fluoroquinolone resistance affects patient management and necessitates changes in some guidelines, for example, treatment of urinary tract, intra-abdominal, skin and skin structure infections, and traveller's diarrhea, or even precludes the use in indications like sexually transmitted diseases and enteric fever.

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          Most cited references 565

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          Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic.

          Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), endovascular infections, pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, foreign-body infections, and sepsis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were once confined largely to hospitals, other health care environments, and patients frequenting these facilities. Since the mid-1990s, however, there has been an explosion in the number of MRSA infections reported in populations lacking risk factors for exposure to the health care system. This increase in the incidence of MRSA infection has been associated with the recognition of new MRSA clones known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). CA-MRSA strains differ from the older, health care-associated MRSA strains; they infect a different group of patients, they cause different clinical syndromes, they differ in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, they spread rapidly among healthy people in the community, and they frequently cause infections in health care environments as well. This review details what is known about the epidemiology of CA-MRSA strains and the clinical spectrum of infectious syndromes associated with them that ranges from a commensal state to severe, overwhelming infection. It also addresses the therapy of these infections and strategies for their prevention.
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            Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern.

            The medical community relies on clinical expertise and published guidelines to assist physicians with choices in empirical therapy for system-based infectious syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia and urinary-tract infections (UTIs). From the late 1990s, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (mostly Escherichia coli) that produce extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of UTIs. Recent reports have also described ESBL-producing E coli as a cause of bloodstream infections associated with these community-onset UTIs. The carbapenems are widely regarded as the drugs of choice for the treatment of severe infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, although comparative clinical trials are scarce. Thus, more rapid diagnostic testing of ESBL-producing bacteria and the possible modification of guidelines for community-onset bacteraemia associated with UTIs are required.
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              Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps - not just for resistance.

               Laura Piddock (2006)
              It is well established that multidrug-resistance efflux pumps encoded by bacteria can confer clinically relevant resistance to antibiotics. It is now understood that these efflux pumps also have a physiological role(s). They can confer resistance to natural substances produced by the host, including bile, hormones and host-defence molecules. In addition, some efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) family have been shown to have a role in the colonization and the persistence of bacteria in the host. Here, I present the accumulating evidence that multidrug-resistance efflux pumps have roles in bacterial pathogenicity and propose that these pumps therefore have greater clinical relevance than is usually attributed to them.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis
                Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis
                IPID
                Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-708X
                1687-7098
                2012
                14 October 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Institute for Infection-Medicine, Christian-Albrechts Univerity of Kiel and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 4, 24105 Kiel, Germany
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Abiola C. Senok

                Article
                10.1155/2012/976273
                3477668
                23097666
                Copyright © 2012 Axel Dalhoff.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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