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      Psychometric development of the hypersexual behavior consequences scale

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          Background and aims

          The past decade has seen an increased interest in understanding hypersexual behavior and its associated features. Beyond the obvious risks for sexually transmitted infections, there is a paucity of literature examining specific challenges encountered by hypersexual individuals. This study investigated and developed a new scale, the Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale (HBCS), to assess the various consequences reported among hypersexual patients.


          Participants were drawn from a sample of patients recruited in a DSM-5 Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder (HD). Participants completed the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, a structured diagnostic interview to assess for psychopathology and HD, and self-report measures of personality, life satisfaction, and the initial item pool for the HBCS.


          Factor analysis reduced the HBCS items to a single factor solution which showed high internal consistency and stability over time. Higher HBCS scores were positively correlated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness and lower levels of satisfaction with life and happiness. HBCS scores among the hypersexual patients were significantly higher than non-hypersexual patients.


          The HBCS possesses good psychometric properties and appears to capture various consequences associated with the DSM-5 proposed criteria for HD. The HBCS can be used to aid clinicians and researchers in identifying consequences associated with hypersexual behavior. The HBCS may also prove a useful tool to guide treatment interventions aimed at reducing the negative impact of hypersexuality in patient populations.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Hypersexual disorder: a proposed diagnosis for DSM-V.

           M Kafka (2010)
          Hypersexual Disorder is proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for consideration in the Sexual Disorders section for DSM-V. Historical precedents describing hypersexual behaviors as well as the antecedent representations and proposals for inclusion of such a condition in the previous DSM manuals are reviewed. Epidemiological as well as clinical evidence is presented suggesting that non-paraphilic "excesses" of sexual behavior (i.e., hypersexual behaviors and disorders) can be accompanied by both clinically significant personal distress and social and medical morbidity. The research literature describing comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders and a purported relationship between Axis I disorders and Hypersexual Disorder is discussed. Based on an extensive review of the literature, Hypersexual Disorder is conceptualized as primarily a nonparaphilic sexual desire disorder with an impulsivity component. Specific polythetic diagnostic criteria, as well as behavioral specifiers, are proposed, intended to integrate empirically based contributions from various putative pathophysiological perspectives, including dysregulation of sexual arousal and desire, sexual impulsivity, sexual addiction, and sexual compulsivity.
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            Sexual sensation seeking and Sexual Compulsivity Scales: reliability, validity, and predicting HIV risk behavior.

             D Rompa,  S Kalichman (1995)
            Two studies are presented that evaluate newly developed scales of sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity. Results showed that the scales were reliable and correlated with convergent and divergent measures in expected directions in samples of both gay men (N = 296) and inner city low-income men and women (N = 158). Consistent with theories of sensation seeking, the scales corresponded to an attraction toward a range of sexual practices, including increased frequencies of unprotected intercourse and a greater number of sexual partners. As expected, sexual compulsivity was not related to variety and novelty in sexual practices, but was associated with lower levels of self-esteem and resistance to adopting sexual risk-reducing strategies. However important differences were observed between the gay men and heterosexual samples; scales correlated with substance use only among gay men, and sexual compulsivity was related to a range of sexual practices only among heterosexuals. The sensation seeking and Sexual Compulsivity Scales were therefore reliable, appeared valid, and useful in predicting sexual risk behaviors.
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              Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical psychology.

               Andrew Comrey (1988)

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 September 2012
                1 August 2012
                : 1
                : 3
                : 115-122
                [ 1 ] Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
                [ 2 ] Department of Psychology, Texas Tech University, Texas, USA
                [ 3 ] University of California Los Angeles, 760 Westwood Boulevard, Suite 38-153, Los Angeles, CA, 90024, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] +1-310-825-8050, rreid@
                © 2012 The Author(s)

                Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

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