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      Thrombin Production and Human Neutrophil Elastase Sequestration by Modified Cellulosic Dressings and Their Electrokinetic Analysis

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          Abstract

          Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing). Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze). A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration.

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          Most cited references 106

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          In vitro cytotoxicity testing of polycations: influence of polymer structure on cell viability and hemolysis.

          A comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study with different water-soluble, cationic macromolecules which have been described as gene delivery systems was performed. Cytotoxicity in L929 mouse fibroblasts was monitored using the MTT assay and the release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Microscopic observations were carried out as indicators for cell viability. Furthermore, hemolysis of erythrocytes was quantified spectrophotometrically. To determine the nature of cell death induced by the polycations, the nuclear morphology after DAPI staining and the inhibition of the toxic effects by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk were investigated. All assays yielded comparable results and allowed the following ranking of the polymers with regard to cytotoxicity: Poly(ethylenimine)=poly(L-lysine)>poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)>diethylaminoethyl-dextran>poly(vinyl pyridinium bromide)>Starburst dendrimer>cationized albumin>native albumin. The magnitude of the cytotoxic effects of all polymers were found to be time- and concentration dependent. The molecular weight as well as the cationic charge density of the polycations were confirmed as key parameters for the interaction with the cell membranes and consequently, the cell damage. Evaluating the nature of cell death induced by poly(ethylenimine), we did not detect any indication for apoptosis suggesting that the polymer induced a necrotic cell reaction. Cell nuclei retained their size, chromatin was homogenously distributed and cell membranes lost their integrity very rapidly at an early stage. Furthermore, the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk did not inhibit poly(ethylenimine)-induced cell damage. Insights into the structure-toxicity relationship are necessary to optimize the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of non-viral gene delivery systems.
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            Understanding and controlling the bone-implant interface.

             D Puleo (1999)
            A goal of current implantology research is to design devices that induce controlled, guided, and rapid healing. In addition to acceleration of normal wound healing phenomena, endosseous implants should result in formation of a characteristic interfacial layer and bone matrix with adequate biomechanical properties. To achieve these goals, however, a better understanding of events at the interface and of the effects biomaterials have on bone and bone cells is needed. Such knowledge is essential for developing strategies to optimally control osseointegration. This paper reviews current knowledge of the bone-biomaterial interface and methods being investigated for controlling it. Morphological studies have revealed the heterogeneity of the bone-implant interface. One feature often reported, regardless of implant material, is an afibrillar interfacial zone, comparable to cement lines and laminae limitantes at natural bone interfaces. These electron-dense interfacial layers are rich in noncollagenous proteins, such as osteopontin and bone sialoprotein. Several approaches, involving alteration of surface physicochemical, morphological, and/or biochemical properties, are being investigated in an effort to obtain a desirable bone-implant interface. Of particular interest are biochemical methods of surface modification, which immobilize molecules on biomaterials for the purpose of inducing specific cell and tissue responses or, in other words, to control the tissue-implant interface with biomolecules delivered directly to the interface. Although still in its infancy, early studies indicate the value of this methodology for controlling cell and matrix events at the bone-implant interface.
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              Influence of pH on wound-healing: a new perspective for wound-therapy?

              Wound healing is a complex regeneration process, which is characterised by intercalating degradation and re-assembly of connective tissue and epidermal layer. The pH value within the wound-milieu influences indirectly and directly all biochemical reactions taking place in this process of healing. Interestingly it is so far a neglected parameter for the overall outcome. For more than three decades the common assumption amongst physicians was that a low pH value, such as it is found on normal skin, is favourable for wound healing. However, investigations have shown that in fact some healing processes such as the take-rate of skin-grafts require an alkaline milieu. The matter is thus much more complicated than it was assumed. This review article summarises the existing literature dealing with the topic of pH value within the wound-milieu, its influence on wound healing and critically discusses the currently existing data in this field. The conclusion to be drawn at present is that the wound pH indeed proves to be a potent influential factor for the healing process and that different pH ranges are required for certain distinct phases of wound healing. Further systematic data needs to be collected for a better understanding of the pH requirements under specific circumstances. This is important as it will help to develop new pH targeted therapeutic strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Funct Biomater
                J Funct Biomater
                Journal of Functional Biomaterials
                Journal of Functional Biomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4983
                December 2011
                15 December 2011
                : 2
                : 4
                : 391-413
                Affiliations
                Southern Regional Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1100 Robert E. Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA; E-Mail: nicolette.prevost@ 123456ars.usda.gov
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: vince.edwards@ 123456ars.usda.gov .
                Article
                jfb-02-00391
                10.3390/jfb2040391
                4030916
                © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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