The neuroendocrine system regulates several organic functions such as reproduction, metabolism and adaptation to the environment. This system shows seasonal changes linked to the environment. The experimental model used in the present study was Lagostomus maximus maximus (viscacha). The reproduction of males of this species is photoperiod dependent. Twenty-four adult male viscachas were captured in their habitat at different times during one year. The adrenal glands were processed for light microscopy. Serial cuts were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for the morphometric study, and 100 nuclei of each zone of the adrenal cortex were counted per animal. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and the Tukey test. The cells of the glomerulosa zone are arranged in a tube-shaped structure. The fasciculata zone has large cells with central nuclei and clearly visible nucleoli and with a vacuolar cytoplasm. In the reticularis zone there are two of types of cells, one with a nucleus of fine chromatin and a clearly visible nucleolus and the other with nuclear pycnosis. Morphometric analysis showed maximum nuclear volumes during the February-March period with values of 133 ± 7.3 µm3 for the glomerulosa, 286.4 ± 14.72 µm3 for the fasciculata, and 126.3 ± 9.49 µm3 for the reticularis. Minimum nuclear volumes were observed in August with values of 88.24 ± 9.9 µm3 for the glomerulosa, 163.7 ± 7.78 µm3 for the fasciculata and 64.58 ± 4.53 µm3 for the reticularis. The short winter photoperiod to which viscacha is subjected could inhibit the adrenal cortex through a melatonin increase which reduces the nuclear volume as well as the cellular activity.