The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological response to an exercise test in 75- to 77-year-old women and men. Out of a systematically chosen and representative sample of 1,245 persons from a population at the age of 70, 649 individuals remained available at the age of 75–77 years. An exercise test was performed in 335 participants (52%), 174 women and 161 men. 180 (28%) were excluded because of morbidity. 131 (20%) refused to perform an exercise test. Three persons had to be excluded because of missing data. The maximal heart rate was about 140 beats/min. Heart rates at different submaximal workloads were higher in females than in males. In males there was a significant nonlinear increase in heart rate at increasing work loads while in females this was not significant. The systolic blood pressure increased more in females than in males while working on the loads 30–50 W and 50–75 W. There was a significant nonlinear increase in systolic blood pressure in men without cardiovascular drugs during exercise on 30–75 W, but the corresponding increase was not significant in women. The highest average work load for the whole group measured during at least 4 min of near-maximal exercise on a bicycle was in women 48 W and in men 66 W. Forty-four percent of the women and 22% of the men had a physical working capacity presumably interfering with their ability to perform activities of daily living.