Using indirect immunofluorescence methods and antisera raised against galanin (GAL) and vasopressin (VP), we have demonstrated both peptides coexisting in the very same cell bodies in the supraoptic and magnocellular paraventricular nuclei and the magnocellular accessory cells of the lateral hypothalamic area. Furthermore, dehydration and salt loading, which is known to cause release and depletion of VP and oxytocin from the neurohypophysis, also caused a marked reduction of GAL-like immunoreactivity in the posterior lobe of the pituitary but had no effect on hypothalamic GAL immunoreactivity. Systemically administered GAL caused a brief small increase in blood pressure with no effect on heart rate. A thousandfold molar concentration of GAL, compared of VP, was required to induce comparable effects on blood pressure. GAL itself had no modulatory effect on VP-induced pressor response. Systemically administered GAL resulted in mild diuresis whereas VP caused complete and sustained inhibition of diuresis. GAL had no effect on VP-induced anti-diuretis effects. The significance of the coexistence and corelease of GAL and VP remains to be elucidated.