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      Association between blood microbiome and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nested case‐control study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although recent studies have indicated that gut microbiome dysbiosis was significantly associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), information on the role of blood microbiome in T2DM development is scarce.

          Methods

          Fifty incident T2DM cases and 100 matched non‐T2DM controls were selected from a prospective cohort study of “135.” The composition of the blood microbiome was characterized using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing from pre‐diagnostic blood sample. The amplicons were normalized, pooled, and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq instrument using a MiSeq Reagent Kit PE300 v3 kit.

          Results

          Totally, 3 000 391 and 6 244 227 high‐quality sequences were obtained from T2DM patients and non‐T2DM controls, respectively. The mean diversity of the blood microbiome (Simpson, Chao1 and Shannon indices) was not different between two groups at baseline. At genus level, the Aquabacterium, Xanthomonas, and Pseudonocardia were presented with lower abundance, while Actinotalea, Alishewanella, Sediminibacterium, and Pseudoclavibacter were presented with higher abundance among T2DM cases compared to those in non‐T2DM controls. As the results shown, participants carried the genus Bacteroides in blood were significantly associated with a decreased risk for T2DM development, with 74% vs 88% (adjusted OR: 0.367, 95% CI: 0.151‐0.894). However, participants carried the genus Sediminibacterium have an increased risk for T2DM, with adjusted OR (95% CI) being 14.098 (1.358, 146.330).

          Conclusions

          Blood microbiome may play an etiology role in the development of T2DM. These findings would be useful to develop microbiota‐based strategies for T2DM prevention and control.

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          Most cited references24

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          The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

          Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines.
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            Diabetes in China: Epidemiology and Genetic Risk Factors and Their Clinical Utility in Personalized Medication.

            The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has rapidly increased over recent decades, and T2D has become a leading public health challenge in China. Compared with European descents, Chinese patients with T2D are diagnosed at a relatively young age and low BMI. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the diabetes epidemic is crucial for determining future prevention and intervention programs. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors contribute substantially to the development of T2D. To date, more than 100 susceptibility loci for T2D have been identified. Individually, most T2D genetic variants have a small effect size (10-20% increased risk for T2D per risk allele); however, a genetic risk score that combines multiple T2D loci could be used to predict the risk of T2D and to identify individuals who are at a high risk. Furthermore, individualized antidiabetes treatment should be a top priority to prevent complications and mortality. In this article, we review the epidemiological trends and recent progress in the understanding of T2D genetic etiology and further discuss personalized medicine involved in the treatment of T2D.
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              Gut commensal Bacteroides acidifaciens prevents obesity and improves insulin sensitivity in mice

              In humans, the composition of gut commensal bacteria is closely correlated with obesity. The bacteria modulate metabolites and influence host immunity. In this study, we attempted to determine whether there is a direct correlation between specific commensal bacteria and host metabolism. As mice aged, we found significantly reduced body weight and fat mass in Atg7ΔCD11c mice when compared with Atg7f/f mice. When mice shared commensal bacteria by co-housing or feces transfer experiments, body weight and fat mass were similar in both mouse groups. By pyrosequencing analysis, Bacteroides acidifaciens (BA) was significantly increased in feces of Atg7ΔCD11c mice compared with those of control Atg7f/f mice. Wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice fed with BA were significantly more likely to gain less weight and fat mass than mice fed with PBS. Of note, the expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was consistently increased in the adipose tissues of Atg7ΔCD11c mice, B6 mice transferred with fecal microbiota of Atg7ΔCD11c mice, and BA-fed B6 mice. Furthermore, B6 mice fed with BA showed elevated insulin levels in serum, accompanied by increased serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and decreased intestinal dipeptidyl peptidase-4. These finding suggest that BA may have potential for treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                cdong@suda.edu.cn
                Journal
                J Clin Lab Anal
                J. Clin. Lab. Anal
                10.1002/(ISSN)1098-2825
                JCLA
                Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0887-8013
                1098-2825
                04 February 2019
                May 2019
                : 33
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1002/jcla.2019.33.issue-4 )
                : e22842
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Disease Medical College of Soochow University Suzhou Jiangsu China
                [ 2 ] Suzhou Industrial Park Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Suzhou China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Chen Dong, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Disease, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

                Email: cdong@ 123456suda.edu.cn

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5175-1662
                Article
                JCLA22842
                10.1002/jcla.22842
                6528574
                30714640
                c755dc52-0124-432c-9c0f-932484d3021d
                © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 27 August 2018
                : 05 December 2018
                : 11 December 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Pages: 0, Words: 5176
                Funding
                Funded by: Foundation for the key technology study on the major disease and communicable disease prevention and Control
                Award ID: Gwzx201605
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81502869
                Award ID: 81773507
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                jcla22842
                May 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.7.0 mode:remove_FC converted:24.10.2019

                Clinical chemistry
                16s ribosomal rna,blood microbiome,nested case‐control study,type 2 diabetes mellitus

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