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      Factors influencing the uptake of family planning services in the Talensi District, Ghana


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          Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it's usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services.


          This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit 280 residents aged 15-49 years and data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0.


          The study revealed that 89% (249/280), of respondents were aware of family planning services, 18% (50/280) of respondents had used family planning services in the past. Parity and educational level of respondents were positively associated with usage of family planning services (P<0.05). Major motivating factors to the usage of family planning service were to space children, 94% (47/50) and to prevent pregnancy and sexual transmitted infections 84% (42/50). Major reasons for not accessing family planning services were opposition from husbands, 90% (207/230) and misconceptions about family planning, 83% (191/230).


          Although most women were aware of family planning services in the Talensi district, the uptake of the service was low. Thus, there is the need for the office of the district health directorate to intensify health education on the benefits of family planning with male involvement. The government should also scale up family planning services in the district to make it more accessible.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission.

          The amount of protection that condoms provide for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is unknown. Cohort studies of sexually active HIV serodiscordant couples with follow-up of the seronegative partner, provide a situation in which a seronegative partner has known exposure to the disease and disease incidence can be estimated. When some individuals use condoms and some do not, namely some individuals use condoms 100% of the time and some never use (0%) condoms, condom effectiveness can be estimated by comparing the two incidence rates. Condom effectiveness is the proportionate reduction in disease due to the use of condoms. The objective of this review is to estimate condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV. Studies were located using electronic databases (AIDSLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and MEDLINE) and handsearched reference lists. For inclusion, studies had to have: (1) data concerning sexually active HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples, (2) a longitudinal study design, (3) HIV status determined by serology, and (4) contain condom usage information on a cohort of always (100%) or never (0%) condom users. Studies identified through the above search strategy that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Sample sizes, number of seroconversions, and the person-years of disease-free exposure time were recorded for each cohort. If available, the direction of transmission in the cohort (male-to-female, female-to-male), date of study enrollment, source of infection in the index case, and the presence of other STDs was recorded. Duplicate reports on the same cohort and studies with incomplete or nonsepecific information were excluded. HIV incidence was estimated from the cohorts of "always" users and for the cohorts of "never" users. Effectiveness was estimated from these two incidence estimates. Of the 4709 references that were initially identified, 14 were included in the final analysis. There were 13 cohorts of "always" users that yielded an homogeneous HIV incidence estimate of 1.14 [95% C.I.:.56, 2.04] per 100 person-years. There were 10 cohorts of "never" users that appeared to be heterogeneous. The studies with the longest follow-up time, consisting mainly of studies of partners of hemophiliac and transfusion patients, yielded an HIV incidence estimate of 5.75 [95% C.I.: 3.16, 9.66] per 100 person-years. Overall effectiveness, the proportionate reduction in HIV seroconversion with condom use, is approximately 80%. This review indicates that consistent use of condoms results in 80% reduction in HIV incidence. Consistent use is defined as using a condom for all acts of penetrative vaginal intercourse. Because the studies used in this review did not report on the "correctness" of use, namely whether condoms were used correctly and perfectly for each and every act of intercourse, effectiveness and not efficacy is estimated. Also, this estimate refers in general to the male condom and not specifically to the latex condom, since studies also tended not to specify the type of condom that was used. Thus, condom effectiveness is similar to, although lower than, that for contraception.
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            The Millennium Project: a plan for meeting the Millennium Development Goals.

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              Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

              Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes.

                Author and article information

                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                05 January 2015
                : 20
                [1 ]Ghana Health Service, Talensi district, Upper East Region, Ghana
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Paschal Awingura Apanga, Ghana Health Service, Tongo, Upper East Region, Ghana
                © Paschal Awingura Apanga et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



                family planning, contraceptives, uptake, talensi district, ghana


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