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      Medication Adherence among Diabetic and Hypertensive Patients in Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia


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          Non-adherence to medication is often an unrecognized risk factor that contributes to failure of the therapeutic plan. The purpose of the study was to identify factors related to high, medium and low medication adherence among adult Saudi patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This study is designed as a descriptive cross sectional survey and was conducted in three tertiary care hospitals of Al-Qassim province of Saudi Arabia. The data was collected using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and analyzed by SPSS. Three levels of adherence were considered based on the following scores: 0 to <6 (low); 6 to <8 (medium); 8 (high). Of the 396 patients interviewed, 52% reported low adherence to prescribed medication. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted. Gender, age, literacy level, duration of illness and type of chronic disease were negatively associated with medication adherence. The study shows very high proportion of low and medium adherence on long term medication, which may be responsible for the failure of achieving therapeutic outcome. Further investigation is required to evaluate the applicability of MMAS-8 as a tool of measuring medication adherence among Saudi patients with chronic diseases. Adherence enhancing strategies should also be evaluated in separate patients group.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Improving the measurement of self-reported medication nonadherence: response to authors.

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            Determinants of adherence to diabetes medications: findings from a large pharmacy claims database.

            Adults with diabetes typically take multiple medications for hyperglycemia, diabetes-associated conditions, and other comorbidities. Medication adherence is associated with improved outcomes, including reduced health care costs, hospitalization, and mortality. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a large pharmacy claims database to examine patient, medication, and prescriber factors associated with adherence to antidiabetic medications. We extracted data on a cohort of >200,000 patients who were treated for diabetes with noninsulin medications in the second half of 2010 and had continuous prescription benefits eligibility through 2011. Adherence was defined as a medication possession ratio ≥ 0.8. We used a modified adherence measure that accounted for switching therapies. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with adherence. Sixty-nine percent of patients were adherent. Adherence was independently associated with older age, male sex, higher education, higher income, use of mail order versus retail pharmacies, primary care versus nonendocrinology specialist prescribers, higher daily total pill burden, and lower out-of-pocket costs. Patients who were new to diabetes therapy were significantly less likely to be adherent. Several demographic, clinical, and potentially modifiable system-level factors were associated with adherence to antidiabetic medications. Patients typically perceived to be healthy (those who are younger, new to diabetes, and on few other medications) may be at risk for nonadherence. For all patients, efforts to reduce out-of-pocket costs and encourage use of mail order pharmacies may result in higher adherence. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
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              Executive function, working memory, and medication adherence among older adults.

              The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive processes and medication adherence among community-dwelling older adults. Ninety-five participants (M = 78 years) completed a battery of cognitive assessments including measures of executive function, working memory, cued recall, and recognition memory. Medication adherence was examined over 8 weeks for one prescribed medicine by use of an electronic medication-monitoring cap. In a simultaneous regression, the composite of executive function and working memory tasks was the only significant predictor (beta =.44, p <.01). Findings suggest that assessments of executive function and working memory can be used to identify community-dwelling older adults who may be at risk for failure to take medicines as prescribed.

                Author and article information

                British Journal of Pharmacy
                University of Huddersfield Press
                14 November 2016
                : 1
                : 1
                : 100-105
                College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Tel.: +966 501652889 E-mail: rasheed.kamran@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2016, Muhammad Kamran Rasheed, Ahmad Khalid M. Aljameely, Muteb Juaythin Alharbi

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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