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      Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health

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          Abstract

          Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40–50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.

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          Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2008.

          Up-to-date statistics on cancer occurrence and outcome are essential for the planning and evaluation of programmes for cancer control. Since the relevant information for 2008 is not generally available as yet, we used statistical models to estimate incidence and mortality data for 25 cancers in 40 European countries (grouped and individually) in 2008. The calculations are based on published data. If not collected, national rates were estimated from national mortality data and incidence and mortality data provided by local cancer registries of the same or neighbouring country. The estimated 2008 rates were applied to the corresponding country population estimates for 2008 to obtain an estimate of the numbers of cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2008. There were an estimated 3.2 million new cases of cancer and 1.7 million deaths from cancer in 2008. The most common cancers were colorectal cancers (436,000 cases, 13.6% of the total), breast cancer (421,000, 13.1%), lung cancer (391,000, 12.2%) and prostate cancer (382,000, 11.9%). The most common causes of death from cancer were lung cancer (342,000 deaths, 19.9% of the total), colorectal cancer (212,000 deaths, 12.3%), breast cancer (129,000, 7.5%) and stomach cancer (117,000, 6.8%). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma.

            Kidney cancer is among the 10 most frequently occurring cancers in Western communities. Globally, about 270 000 cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed yearly and 116 000 people die from the disease. Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). The causes of RCC are not completely known. We have reviewed known aetiologic factors. The data provided in the current review are based on a thorough review of available original and review articles on RCC epidemiology with a systemic literature search using Medline. Smoking, overweight and obesity, and germline mutations in specific genes are established risk factors for RCC. Hypertension and advanced kidney disease, which makes dialysis necessary, also increase RCC risk. Specific dietary habits and occupational exposure to specific carcinogens are suspected risk factors, but results in the literature are inconclusive. Alcohol consumption seems to have a protective effect for reasons yet unknown. Hardly any information is available for some factors that may have a high a priori role in the causation of RCC, such as salt consumption. Large collaborative studies with uniform data collection seem to be necessary to elucidate a complete list of established risk factors of RCC. This is necessary to make successful prevention possible for a disease that is diagnosed frequently in a stage where curative treatment is not possible anymore. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrition Research Reviews
                Nutr. Res. Rev.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0954-4224
                1475-2700
                December 2017
                July 05 2017
                December 2017
                : 30
                : 2
                : 149-190
                Article
                10.1017/S095442241700004X
                28676135
                c965a24c-5b58-4980-885e-0e567ab81936
                © 2017

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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