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Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation.

The New England journal of medicine

adverse effects, Aged, Warfarin, prevention & control, epidemiology, Stroke, administration & dosage, Pyridines, Proportional Hazards Models, therapeutic use, Prodrugs, Myocardial Infarction, Middle Aged, Male, drug effects, Liver, Humans, chemically induced, Hemorrhage, Follow-Up Studies, Female, Embolism, Dyspepsia, Double-Blind Method, Chi-Square Distribution, Benzimidazoles, mortality, drug therapy, complications, Atrial Fibrillation, Anticoagulants

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      Abstract

      Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but increases the risk of hemorrhage and is difficult to use. Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. In this noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 18,113 patients who had atrial fibrillation and a risk of stroke to receive, in a blinded fashion, fixed doses of dabigatran--110 mg or 150 mg twice daily--or, in an unblinded fashion, adjusted-dose warfarin. The median duration of the follow-up period was 2.0 years. The primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism. Rates of the primary outcome were 1.69% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 1.53% per year in the group that received 110 mg of dabigatran (relative risk with dabigatran, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 1.11% per year in the group that received 150 mg of dabigatran (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.82; P<0.001 for superiority). The rate of major bleeding was 3.36% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 2.71% per year in the group receiving 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.003) and 3.11% per year in the group receiving 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.31). The rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.38% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 0.12% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001) and 0.10% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P<0.001). The mortality rate was 4.13% per year in the warfarin group, as compared with 3.75% per year with 110 mg of dabigatran (P=0.13) and 3.64% per year with 150 mg of dabigatran (P=0.051). In patients with atrial fibrillation, dabigatran given at a dose of 110 mg was associated with rates of stroke and systemic embolism that were similar to those associated with warfarin, as well as lower rates of major hemorrhage. Dabigatran administered at a dose of 150 mg, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00262600.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

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      Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial.

      Oral anticoagulation therapy reduces risk of vascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, long-term monitoring is necessary and many patients cannot achieve optimum anticoagulation. We assessed whether clopidogrel plus aspirin was non-inferior to oral anticoagulation therapy for prevention of vascular events. Patients were enrolled if they had atrial fibrillation plus one or more risk factor for stroke, and were randomly allocated to receive oral anticoagulation therapy (target international normalised ratio of 2.0-3.0; n=3371) or clopidogrel (75 mg per day) plus aspirin (75-100 mg per day recommended; n=3335). Outcome events were adjudicated by a blinded committee. Primary outcome was first occurrence of stroke, non-CNS systemic embolus, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00243178. The study was stopped early because of clear evidence of superiority of oral anticoagulation therapy. There were 165 primary events in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy (annual risk 3.93%) and 234 in those on clopidogrel plus aspirin (annual risk 5.60%; relative risk 1.44 (1.18-1.76; p=0.0003). Patients on oral anticoagulation therapy who were already receiving this treatment at study entry had a trend towards a greater reduction in vascular events (relative risk 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.89) and a significantly (p=0.03 for interaction) lower risk of major bleeding with oral anticoagulation therapy (1.30; 0.94-1.79) than patients not on this treatment at study entry (1.27, 0.85-1.89 and 0.59, 0.32-1.08, respectively). Oral anticoagulation therapy is superior to clopidogrel plus aspirin for prevention of vascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation at high risk of stroke, especially in those already taking oral anticoagulation therapy.
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        Validation of Clinical Classification Schemes for Predicting Stroke

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          Major hemorrhage and tolerability of warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

          Warfarin is effective in the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation but is under used in clinical care. Concerns exist that published rates of hemorrhage may not reflect real-world practice. Few patients > or = 80 years of age were enrolled in trials, and studies of prevalent use largely reflect a warfarin-tolerant subset. We sought to define the tolerability of warfarin among an elderly inception cohort with atrial fibrillation. Consecutive patients who started warfarin were identified from January 2001 to June 2003 and followed for 1 year. Patients had to be > or = 65 years of age, have established care at the study institution, and have their warfarin managed on-site. Outcomes included major hemorrhage, time to termination of warfarin, and reason for discontinuation. Of 472 patients, 32% were > or = 80 years of age, and 91% had > or = 1 stroke risk factor. The cumulative incidence of major hemorrhage for patients > or = 80 years of age was 13.1 per 100 person-years and 4.7 for those or = 80 years, and international normalized ratio (INR) > or = 4.0 were associated with increased risk despite trial-level anticoagulation control. Within the first year, 26% of patients > or = 80 years of age stopped taking warfarin. Perceived safety issues accounted for 81% of them. Rates of major hemorrhage and warfarin termination were highest among patients with CHADS2 scores (an acronym for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age > or = 75, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack) of > or = 3. Rates of hemorrhage derived from younger noninception cohorts underestimate the bleeding that occurs in practice. This finding coupled with the short-term tolerability of warfarin likely contributes to its underutilization. Stroke prevention among elderly patients with atrial fibrillation remains a challenging and pressing health concern.
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            Journal
            10.1056/NEJMoa0905561
            19717844

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