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      Adiponectin and insulin resistance are related to restenosis and overall new PCI in subjects with normal glucose tolerance: the prospective AIRE Study

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          In patients with Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT) some causes of ischemic heart disease (IHD) were not completely investigated. The role both of metabolic milieu and adipokines in IHD progression was not fully investigated. Our aim was to assess the link between adipokines plasma levels, insulin resistance (IR) and IHD in NGT patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI).


          AIRE is a single-center prospective longitudinal observational study investigating the IHD outcome of NGT subjects who underwent coronary revascularization by PCI in a third level cardiology center at A.O. dei Colli Hospital, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”. Six hundred seventy-nine subjects hospitalized in 2015 for coronary arteriography not suffering from Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in the previous 4 weeks, as well as from all conditions could affect glycemic plasma levels and IR status, were assessed for eligibility. Fifty-four patients with neither history of diabetes nor Altered Fasting Glucose (AFG)/Impaired Fasting Glucose (IGT) after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) were finally enrolled. Primary endpoint was the assessment of the relationship of adipokines and HOMA-IR with the occurrence of restenosis in NGT subjects. As secondary endpoint we assessed the association of the same adipokines and IR with overall ACS events after PCI in NGT subjects.


          The 54 NGT patients enrolled were mainly males (85%), with a median age of 60 years [IQR 58–63 years]. Only 4 patients (7.4%) experimented restenosis. Median follow-up was equal to 29.5 months [IQR 14.7–34 months]. Adiponectin levels were independently associated to restenosis (OR 0.206; 95% CI 0.053–0.796; p = 0.000). Instead HOMA-IR and adiponectin appeared independently associated both to de novo IHD (OR 9.6*10 13; 95% CI 3.026–3.08*10 27; p = 0.042 and OR 0.206; 95% CI 0.053–0.796; p = 0.000, respectively) and overall new PCI (OR 1.5*10 11; 95% CI 2.593–8.68*10 21; p = 0.042 and OR 0.206; 95% CI 0.053–0.796; p = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, we fixed a potential cut-off for adiponectin for risk of restenosis (≤ 8.5 µg/mL) and overall new PCI (≤ 9.5 µg/mL).


          IR and cytokines play a role in progression of any stage of IHD also in NGT subjects. Our results in this setting of patients, though the relatively small sample size, represent a novelty. Future studies on larger populations are needed to analyze more in depth adipokines and insulin resistance role on IHD progression in non-diabetic people.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12933-019-0826-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Plasma adiponectin levels and risk of myocardial infarction in men.

          Adiponectin, a recently discovered adipocyte-derived peptide, is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation and, purportedly, in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in humans. To assess prospectively whether plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Nested case-control study among 18 225 male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study aged 40 to 75 years who were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease at the time of blood draw (1993-1995). During 6 years of follow-up through January 31, 2000, 266 men subsequently developed nonfatal MI or fatal coronary heart disease. Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio matched for age, date of blood draw, and smoking status (n = 532). Incidence of nonfatal MI and fatal coronary heart disease by adiponectin level. After adjustment for matched variables, participants in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of adiponectin levels had a significantly decreased risk of MI (relative risk [RR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.64; P for trend <.001). Additional adjustment for family history of MI, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes and hypertension did not substantively affect this relationship (RR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; P for trend <.001). Further adjustment for hemoglobin A1c or C-reactive protein levels also had little impact, but additional adjustment for low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels modestly attenuated this association (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.99; P for trend =.02). High plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with lower risk of MI in men. This relationship can be only partly explained by differences in blood lipids and is independent of inflammation and glycemic status.
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            Is nondiabetic hyperglycemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

            Although hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic patients, the risk associated with blood glucose levels in the nondiabetic range remains unsettled. We identified 38 reports in which CVD incidence or mortality was an end point, blood glucose levels were measured prospectively, and the relative risk (RR) and information necessary to calculate the variance were reported comparing groups of nondiabetic people. These reports were prospective studies, published in English-language journals. First author, publication year, participant age and sex, study duration, CVD end points, glucose assessment methods, control for confounding, range of blood glucose levels, RR, and confidence intervals (CIs) or P values were extracted. Using a random effects model, we calculated pooled RRs and 95% CIs. The group with the highest postchallenge blood glucose level (midpoint range, 150-194 mg/dL [8.3-10.8 mmol/L]) had a 27% greater risk for CVD compared with the group with the lowest level (midpoint range, 69-107 mg/dL [3.8-5.9 mmol/L]) (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.09-1.48]). The results were similar when combining studies regardless of type of blood glucose assessment (RR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.23-1.52]) and when using strict criteria for exclusion of diabetic subjects (RR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.11-1.43]). Adjustment for CVD risk factors attenuated but did not abolish this relationship (RR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.07-1.32]). The RR was greater in cohorts including women than in cohorts of men (RR, 1.56 vs 1.24 [P = .03]). Blood glucose level is a risk marker for CVD among apparently healthy individuals without diabetes.
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              Plasma adiponectin, body mass index, and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

              Recent studies have suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with improved prognosis in chronic heart failure (CHF). The adipocytokine adiponectin is inversely associated with BMI, and in healthy subjects, low adiponectin is a predictor of mortality. In a prospective study, we therefore evaluated the association between plasma adiponectin levels and mortality among patients with CHF. In 195 CHF patients (age 69.3+/-10.2 years, BMI 27.3+/-5.2 kg/m2, left ventricular ejection fraction 30+/-8.9%, mean+/-SD), plasma adiponectin and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured at baseline. Adiponectin was positively associated with NT-proBNP (beta=0.47, P<0.001), and both biomarkers were negatively associated with BMI (beta=-0.43, P<0.001 for adiponectin and beta=-0.38, P<0.001 for NT-proBNP, respectively) During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 46 (23.5%) of the patients died. After adjustment for clinical variables associated with CHF severity (age, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction <25%, duration of CHF, and creatinine clearance) and for NT-proBNP, the hazard ratio of mortality for values in the 2 upper tertiles relative to the lowest tertile of adiponectin was 3.23 (P=0.032). BMI predicted mortality independently of clinical parameters of CHF severity (hazard ratio=0.63, P=0.012), but this association became insignificant after additional adjustment for NT-proBNP (hazard ratio=0.74, P=0.13). A high adiponectin level was a predictor of mortality, independent of risk markers of CHF severity, presumably because of its role as a marker for wasting. BMI was also associated with mortality, but a part of this relation may be mediated by adiponectin and NT-proBNP levels.

                Author and article information

                +39 081 566 5010 ,
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovascular Diabetology
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 March 2019
                4 March 2019
                : 18
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2200 8888, GRID grid.9841.4, Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, , University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, ; Piazza Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2200 8888, GRID grid.9841.4, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, ; Piazza Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy
                [3 ]Division of Cardiology, A.O.R.N. Sant’Anna e San Sebastiano, Caserta, Italy
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2200 8888, GRID grid.9841.4, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, , University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, ; Naples, Italy
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0335, GRID grid.11780.3f, Department of Medicine and Surgery, , University of Salerno, ; Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA Italy
                [6 ]GRID grid.413172.2, Department of Cardiology, , Cardarelli Hospital, ; Via Antonio Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples, Italy
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0790 385X, GRID grid.4691.a, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, , University of Naples “Federico II”, ; Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2200 8888, GRID grid.9841.4, Department of Experimental Medicine, , University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, ; Via Santa Maria di Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy
                © The Author(s) 2019

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