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      Depression and 18-Month Prognosis After Myocardial Infarction

      1 , 1 , 1

      Circulation

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          We previously reported that major depression in patients in the hospital after a myocardial infarction (MI) substantially increases the risk of mortality during the first 6 months. We examined the impact of depression over 18 months and present additional evidence concerning potential mechanisms linking depression and mortality. Two-hundred twenty-two patients responded to a modified version of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) for a major depressive episode at approximately 7 days after MI. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which measures depressive symptomatology, was also completed by 218 of the patients. All patients and/or families were contacted at 18 months to determine survival status. Thirty-five patients met the modified DIS criteria for major in-hospital depression after the MI. Sixty-eight had BDI scores > or = 10, indicative of mild to moderate symptoms of depression. There were 21 deaths during the follow-up period, including 19 from cardiac causes. Seven of these deaths occurred among patients who met DIS criteria for depression, and 12 occurred among patients with elevated BDI scores. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that both the DIS (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 10.05; P = .012) and elevated BDI scores (odds ratio, 7.82; 95% CI, 2.42 to 25.26; P = .0002) were significantly related to 18-month cardiac mortality. After we controlled for the other significant multivariate predictors of mortality in the data set (previous MI, Killip class, premature ventricular contractions [PVCs] of > or = 10 per hour), the impact of the BDI score remained significant (adjusted odds ratio, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.76 to 25.09; P = .0026). In addition, the interaction of PVCs and BDI score marginally improved the model (P = .094). The interaction showed that deaths were concentrated among depressed patients with PVCs of > or = 10 per hour (odds ratio, 29.1; 95% CI, 6.97 to 122.07; P < .00001). Depression while in the hospital after an MI is a significant predictor of 18-month post-MI cardiac mortality. Depression also significantly improves a risk-stratification model based on traditional post-MI risks, including previous MI, Killip class, and PVCs. Furthermore, the risk associated with depression is greatest among patients with > or = 10 PVCs per hour. This result is compatible with the literature suggesting an arrhythmic mechanism as the link between psychological factors and sudden cardiac death and underscores the importance of developing screening and treatment programs for post-MI depression.

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          Most cited references 16

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          National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule

           Lee Robins (1981)
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            Six-Month Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Three Communities

             Jerome Myers (1984)
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              Psychosocial influences on mortality after myocardial infarction.

              Psychosocial interviews with 2320 male survivors of acute myocardial infarction, participants in the beta-Blocker Heart Attack Trial, permitted the definition of two variables strongly associated with an increased three-year mortality risk. With other important prognostic factors controlled for, the patients classified as being socially isolated and having a high degree of life stress had more than four times the risk of death of the men with low levels of both stress and isolation. An inverse association of education with mortality in this population reflected the gradient in the prevalence of the defined psychosocial characteristics. High levels of stress and social isolation were most prevalent among the least-educated men and least prevalent among the best-educated. The increase in risk associated with stress and social isolation applied both to total deaths and to sudden cardiac deaths and was noted among men with both high and low levels of ventricular ectopy during hospitalization for the acute infarction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                February 15 1995
                February 15 1995
                : 91
                : 4
                : 999-1005
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Research Center (N.F.-S., F.L., M.T.), Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal; Department of Psychiatry (N.F.-S., F.L.), McGill University, Montreal; and Departments of Psychiatry (N.F.-S., F.L.) and Medicine (M.T.), University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.91.4.999
                7531624
                © 1995

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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