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Smoking status informs about the risk of advanced serrated polyps in a screening population

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      Abstract

      Background and study aims: Evidence has accumulated that approximately 15 % to 30 % of colorectal cancers (CRC) arise from serrated polyps (SP). Population screening, therefore, should be designated to detect advanced SP, in addition to advanced adenomas and CRC. We aimed to evaluate whether CRC risk factors also act as risk factors for advanced SP. Patients and methods: Data were collected in the colonoscopy arm of a multicenter randomized trial comparing colonoscopy with CT-colonography for primary population screening. Information on risk factors was obtained by screening participants before colonoscopy with a validated risk questionnaire. Advanced SP were defined as SP ≥ 10 mm and/or with dysplasia. Endoscopists were instructed to resect all detected lesions. Odds ratios (OR) for the detection of advanced SP as most advanced lesion were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 6 600 invited participants, 1 426 underwent a colonoscopy and 1 236 also completed the questionnaire. In 40 participants an advanced SP was the most advanced lesion detected. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a strong association between current smoking and the presence of at least one advanced SP (OR 4.50; 95 % CI 2.23 – 8.89; P < 0.001). A significant association was also demonstrated for higher fiber intake (OR 1.36 per 20 gram intake; CI 1.07 – 1.73; P = 0.01). Other clinical CRC risk factors did not show a significant association with the presence of at least one advanced SP in the univariate analyses. Fecal haemoglobin levels were also not significantly associated with the presence of advanced SPs (OR 1.00 per 10 ng/mL CI 0.97 – 1.03, P = 0.99). Conclusions: Current smoking is a strong clinical risk factor for the presence of advanced SPs. As such, smoking status could contribute to risk stratification in targeted CRC population screening.Dutch Trial Register: NTR1829 (www.trialregister.nl)

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      Although more than 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown. We established a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries, representing every inhabited continent. 15152 cases and 14820 controls were enrolled. The relation of smoking, history of hypertension or diabetes, waist/hip ratio, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, blood apolipoproteins (Apo), and psychosocial factors to myocardial infarction are reported here. Odds ratios and their 99% CIs for the association of risk factors to myocardial infarction and their population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated. Smoking (odds ratio 2.87 for current vs never, PAR 35.7% for current and former vs never), raised ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (3.25 for top vs lowest quintile, PAR 49.2% for top four quintiles vs lowest quintile), history of hypertension (1.91, PAR 17.9%), diabetes (2.37, PAR 9.9%), abdominal obesity (1.12 for top vs lowest tertile and 1.62 for middle vs lowest tertile, PAR 20.1% for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), psychosocial factors (2.67, PAR 32.5%), daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (0.70, PAR 13.7% for lack of daily consumption), regular alcohol consumption (0.91, PAR 6.7%), and regular physical activity (0.86, PAR 12.2%), were all significantly related to acute myocardial infarction (p<0.0001 for all risk factors and p=0.03 for alcohol). These associations were noted in men and women, old and young, and in all regions of the world. Collectively, these nine risk factors accounted for 90% of the PAR in men and 94% in women. Abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, consumption of fruits, vegetables, and alcohol, and regular physical activity account for most of the risk of myocardial infarction worldwide in both sexes and at all ages in all regions. This finding suggests that approaches to prevention can be based on similar principles worldwide and have the potential to prevent most premature cases of myocardial infarction.
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        Use of the conventional Western and Japanese classification systems of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia results in large differences among pathologists in the diagnosis of oesophageal, gastric, and colorectal neoplastic lesions. To develop common worldwide terminology for gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia. Thirty one pathologists from 12 countries reviewed 35 gastric, 20 colorectal, and 21 oesophageal biopsy and resection specimens. The extent of diagnostic agreement between those with Western and Japanese viewpoints was assessed by kappa statistics. The pathologists met in Vienna to discuss the results and to develop a new consensus terminology. The large differences between the conventional Western and Japanese diagnoses were confirmed (percentage of specimens for which there was agreement and kappa values: 37% and 0.16 for gastric; 45% and 0.27 for colorectal; and 14% and 0.01 for oesophageal lesions). There was much better agreement among pathologists (71% and 0.55 for gastric; 65% and 0.47 for colorectal; and 62% and 0.31 for oesophageal lesions) when the original assessments of the specimens were regrouped into the categories of the proposed Vienna classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia: (1) negative for neoplasia/dysplasia, (2) indefinite for neoplasia/dysplasia, (3) non-invasive low grade neoplasia (low grade adenoma/dysplasia), (4) non-invasive high grade neoplasia (high grade adenoma/dysplasia, non-invasive carcinoma and suspicion of invasive carcinoma), and (5) invasive neoplasia (intramucosal carcinoma, submucosal carcinoma or beyond). The differences between Western and Japanese pathologists in the diagnostic classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplastic lesions can be resolved largely by adopting the proposed terminology, which is based on cytological and architectural severity and invasion status.
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          Long-term colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality after lower endoscopy.

          Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy provide protection against colorectal cancer, but the magnitude and duration of protection, particularly against cancer of the proximal colon, remain uncertain. We examined the association of the use of lower endoscopy (updated biennially from 1988 through 2008) with colorectal-cancer incidence (through June 2010) and colorectal-cancer mortality (through June 2012) among participants in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Among 88,902 participants followed over a period of 22 years, we documented 1815 incident colorectal cancers and 474 deaths from colorectal cancer. With endoscopy as compared with no endoscopy, multivariate hazard ratios for colorectal cancer were 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.72) after polypectomy, 0.60 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.68) after negative sigmoidoscopy, and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.52) after negative colonoscopy. Negative colonoscopy was associated with a reduced incidence of proximal colon cancer (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92). Multivariate hazard ratios for death from colorectal cancer were 0.59 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.76) after screening sigmoidoscopy and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.45) after screening colonoscopy. Reduced mortality from proximal colon cancer was observed after screening colonoscopy (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.76) but not after sigmoidoscopy. As compared with colorectal cancers diagnosed in patients more than 5 years after colonoscopy or without any prior endoscopy, those diagnosed in patients within 5 years after colonoscopy were more likely to be characterized by the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) (multivariate odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.14 to 4.21) and microsatellite instability (multivariate odds ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.02). Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy were associated with a reduced incidence of cancer of the distal colorectum; colonoscopy was also associated with a modest reduction in the incidence of proximal colon cancer. Screening colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy were associated with reduced colorectal-cancer mortality; only colonoscopy was associated with reduced mortality from proximal colon cancer. Colorectal cancer diagnosed within 5 years after colonoscopy was more likely than cancer diagnosed after that period or without prior endoscopy to have CIMP and microsatellite instability. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
            [2 ]Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands
            [3 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands
            [4 ]Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
            [5 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, National Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
            Author notes
            Corresponding author Evelien Dekker, MD PhD Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Academic Medical Centre Meibergdreef 9 1105 AZAmsterdamThe Netherlands+31 20 566 4702+31 20 691 7033 e.dekker@ 123456amc.uva.nl
            Journal
            Endosc Int Open
            Endosc Int Open
            10.1055/s-0034-1377934
            Endoscopy International Open
            © Georg Thieme Verlag KG (Stuttgart · New York )
            2364-3722
            2196-9736
            January 2016
            27 November 2015
            : 4
            : 1
            : E73-E78
            4713182
            10.1055/s-0034-1393361
            © Thieme Medical Publishers
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