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      Two new species of Hydromedusae from Queensland, Australia (Hydrozoa, Leptothecata)

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      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Two new species of small hydromedusae were found during routine monitoring in coastal waters of eastern Australia and are here described. The first, MelicertissaantrichardsoniUribe-Palomino & Gershwin, sp. n., from Moreton Bay, Queensland, is placed in its genus because of its possession of both cordyli and eight-fold symmetry. It differs from its congeners in two conspicuous features: firstly, having small, oval split gonads located adjacent to the base of the stomach, and secondly, in its extremely small size at maturity (2 mm bell diameter, compared to the next smallest species at 7 mm). Moreover, it possesses a unique combination of other characters. This species appears to be endemic to Moreton Bay. The second new species, ParaloveniayongalensisGershwin & Uribe-Palomino, sp. n., from the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, is placed in its genus because of its two opposite normal tentacles and two opposite marginal clusters of cirri. It differs from its congeners primarily in a more rounded body than the others; the shape, length, and position of its short spindle-shaped, distal gonads; possession of subumbrellar nematocyst clusters; and possession of statocysts. These discoveries bring the total number of Melicertissaspecies to eight and the total number of Paraloveniaspecies to three. The discovery of these two micromedusae underscores the need for further examination of the often-ignored minute and/or gelatinous fauna.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Synopsis of the Medusae of the World

           P. L. Kramp (1961)
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            Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa.

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              Nematocysts of the Cubozoa

              Nematocysts (stinging organelles) are an important part of cnidarian identification, but the cnidomes of many species remain poorly known because of identification difficulties and confusing nomenclature. Currently, the cnidomes of 20 cubozoan species are documented in whole or in part (including four undescribed species and five newly described species); 18 of these are re-examined in detail, and the cnidomes of 13 species are newly presented. Type material was used for these studies where possible. A new category of nematocyst is designated, namely ‘p-rhopaloid’, characterized by having a v-shaped notch in the undischarged shaft, as in p-mastigophores, but having a lobed discharged shaft, as in rhopaloids; this type of nematocyst is found in both the Carybdeida and Chirodropida. Measurements, shape descriptions, and photographs are presented for all cnidomes studied. Also presented are a glossary to nematocyst terminology, descriptive sections on nematocyst nomenclature and preparation, and a key to the nematocysts of theCubozoa. Special remarks sections for taxonomists and forensic specialists are given, along with a summary of phylogenetic patterns. This catalogue will be useful to taxonomists, envenomation physicians, and toxinologists, as well as anyone wishing to identify cubozoan specimens or stings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                September 03 2018
                September 03 2018
                : 783
                : 17-36
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.783.26862
                © 2018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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