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      Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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          Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway.

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          Most cited references 24

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          IDF Diabetes Atlas

           F Aguiree,  A. Brown,  NH Cho (2013)
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            Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes: prevalence, pathophysiology, and management.

            Dyslipidemia is one of the key risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes mellitus. Despite the mounting clinical trial data, the management of dyslipidemia other than lowering the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) continues to be controversial. The characteristic features of diabetic dyslipidemia are high plasma triglyceride concentration, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentration, and increased concentration of small dense LDL particles. These changes are caused by increased free fatty acid flux secondary to insulin resistance and aggravated by increased inflammatory adipokines. The availability of several lipid-lowering drugs and nutritional supplements offers novel and effective options for achieving target lipid levels in people with diabetes. While initiation of drug therapy based on differences in the lipid profile is an option, most practice guidelines recommend statins as first-line therapy. Although the evidence for clinical utility of combination of statins with fibrates or nicotinic acid in reducing cardiovascular events remains inconclusive, the preponderance of evidence suggests that a subgroup who have high triglycerides and low HDL-c levels may benefit from combination therapy of statins and fibrates. The goal of therapy is to achieve at least 30-40 % reduction in LDL-c levels. Preferably the LDL-c should be less than 100 mg/dL in low-risk people and less than 70 mg/dL in those at high risk, including people with established CVD.
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              Rho-kinase 2 is frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and involved in tumor invasion.

              Deregulation of Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases has been implicated in human carcinogenesis. Rho-kinases are downstream effectors of Rho guanosine triphosphatases in the regulation of cytoskeletal reorganization and cell motility. However, their functions in human cancers remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Rho-kinases in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor progression and invasion. We first examined the expression of the two Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) in human HCC, and found that ROCK2 was frequently overexpressed in primary HCCs (22/41 [53.66%]). Clinico-pathological analysis revealed that overexpression of ROCK2 was significantly associated with the presence of tumor microsatellite formation (P = 0.005), suggesting that deregulation of ROCK2 may contribute to the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC. Consistently, we demonstrated that stable overexpression of ROCK2 significantly enhanced cell motility and invasiveness in HCC cells. Conversely, stable knockdown of ROCK2 by short hairpin RNA approach remarkably reduced HCC cell migration and invasion. Moreover, orthotopic liver xenograft models provided further support that stable knockdown of ROCK2 suppressed HCC invasion in vivo. Stable knockdown of ROCK2 in HCC cells significantly inhibited Golgi reorientation, myosin phosphatase phosphorylation, and formations of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia; these molecular and cellular events are crucial for cell motility and cancer invasion. Our results indicate that ROCK2 was overexpressed in human HCCs, and this overexpression was associated with a more aggressive biological behavior. Our findings also demonstrate that ROCK2 played a significant role in regulating cytoskeletal events and contributed to the invasion of HCC.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                28 December 2017
                : 12
                : 47-55
                [1 ]Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital
                [2 ]Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University
                [3 ]Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Min Li; Zhe Chen, Department of Military Hygiene, Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Yangpu, Shanghai 200433, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 21 8187 1120/1579, Email linlimin115@ 123456hotmail.com ; herbzheng@ 123456163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Zheng et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                rho-nfκb, portulaca oleracea l., liver injury, diabetes


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