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      Translated title: Aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized, UHT milk and milk powder commercialized in Londrina, Brazil and estimation of exposure Translated title: Aflatoxina M1 em leite pasteurizado e UHT e leite em po comercializados em Londrina, Brasil e exposicao estimada.

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          Translated abstract

          Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is found in milk and other excretion products after aflatoxin B1 intake. AFM1 is carcinogenic to humans, and known levels of dairy product contamination is important to understand the risks to which the population is exposed. The occurrence of AFM1 was evaluated in 42 milk samples commercialized in Londrina, Parana State, Brazil and this rate of occurrence was used to estimate this exposure. AFM1 determina tion was ca rried out by ELISA, and was detected in 100 % samples at levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.81 µ g/kg (mean 0.13 µ g/kg). None of the samples p resente d AFM1 above the maximum permitted level by Brazilian Legislation (0.5 µ g/kg for fluid milk and 5 µ g/kg for milk powder). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of AFM1 was evaluated, and the average intake was 0.468 ng/kg body weight (b.w.) for adolescents, 0.384 ng/kg b.w. for adults and 0.559 ng/kg b.w. for the elderly. Values of EDI of AFM1 found in Londrina pose a toxicological risk to the population investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on estimat ed AFM1 dietary exposure from Parana, Brazil.

          Translated abstract

          Aflatoxina M1 (AFM1) e encontrada no leite e em outros produtos de excrecao apos o consumo de aflatoxina B1. AFM1 e carcinogenica para humanos, e avaliar os niveis de contaminacao em produtos lacteos e importante para conhecer os riscos aos quais a populacao esta exposta. A ocorrencia de AFM1 foi avaliada em 42 amostras de leite comercializadas em Londrina, Estado do Parana, Brasil, e sua ocorrencia foi utilizada para estimar sua exposicao. A determinacao de AFM1 foi avaliada por ELISA, e foi detectada em 100% das amostras, em niveis variando de 0,01 a 0,81 µ g/kg (media 0,13 µ g kg). Nenhuma das amostras apresentou niveis de AFM1 acima do maximo permitido pela Legislacao brasileira (0,5 µ g/kg para leite fluido e 5 µ g/kg para leite em po). A ingestao diaria estimada (IDE) de AFM1 foi avaliada, e a ingestao media foi de 0,468 ng/kg de peso corporal (p.c.)/dia para adolescentes, 0,384 ng/kg p.c./dia para adultos e 0,559 ng/kg p.c./dia para idosos. Valores de IDE de AFM1 encontrados em Londrina supoem um risco toxicologico para a populacao investigada. Do melhor do nosso conhecimento, este e o primeiro trabalho sobre a exposicao estimada de AFM1 do Parana, Brasil.

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          Most cited references20

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          Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: a review.

          The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates, and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins are successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards individual mycotoxins. An impairment of this barrier function due to diseases or the direct antimicrobial effect of certain mycotoxins may increase absorption rates. The rate of absorption determines not only the internal dose and risk for adverse health effects, but also the excretion of mycotoxins and the biologically active metabolites into milk.
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            Determination of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, meat and meat products using HPLC fluorescent and UV detectors

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              Uncertainties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone.

              The risk assessment of mycotoxins is made up of two major components: an exposure assessment and a hazard assessment. There are many uncertainties in both of these components. This paper will briefly discuss the various aspects of the risk assessment process as it applies to mycotoxins and will then focus mainly on some of the uncertainties in the hazard assessment component of several carcinogenic mycotoxins. To arrive at an estimated "safe dose" (end point of the hazard assessment), we have previously used two major approaches: the no observed effect level (NOEL) divided by a safety factor approach and a mathematical (robust linear) extrapolation to a "virtual safe dose." Both of these approaches use only points from the no observed effect region of the dose-response curve and ignore valuable data from the response region. It is proposed to use the dose at which 50% of the animals would have developed tumors (the TD50) divided by a large safety factor of 50,000 as an additional estimate of "safe dose". For many studies, the TD50 lies within the observed response region of the dose-response curve and may have more validity. It is also suggested in certain cases that some of the uncertainties regarding the NOEL can be reduced if one uses a statistically derived no effect level (NEL).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición
                0004-0622
                September 2015
                : 65
                : 3
                : 181-185
                Affiliations
                [1 ] UNOPAR Brazil
                Article
                S0004-06222015000300007
                d07c2772-27d8-4fd1-93d4-aeb66824fa2a

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Mycotoxins,flatoxin M1 (AFM1),dairy products,ELISA,estimated daily intake,Micotoxinas,aflatoxina M1 (AFM1),produtos lacteos,exposicao diaria estim

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