Scorzonera comprises 180–190 species and belongs to the subtribe Scorzonerinae . Its circumscription has long been the subject of debate and available molecular phylogenetic analyses affirmed the polyphyly of Scorzonera in its wide sense. We provide a re-evaluation of Scorzonera and other related genera, based on carpological (including anatomical) and extended molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present, for the first time, a comprehensive sampling, including Scorzonera in its widest sense and all other genera recognised in the Scorzonerinae . We conducted phylogenetic analyses using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses, based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS and of two plastid markers (partial rbcL and matK) and Maximum Parsimony for reconstructing the carpological character states at ancestral nodes. Achene characters, especially related to pericarp anatomy, such as general topography of the tissue types, disposition of the mechanical tissue and direction of its fibres, presence or absence of air cavities, provide, in certain cases, support for the phylogenetic lineages revealed. Confirming the polyphyly of Scorzonera , we propose a revised classification of the subtribe, accepting the genera Scorzonera (including four major clades: Scorzonera s. str., S. purpurea , S. albicaulis and Podospermum ), Gelasia , Lipschitzia gen. nov. (for the Scorzonera divaricata clade), Pseudopodospermum , Pterachaenia (also including Scorzonera codringtonii ), Ramaliella gen. nov. (for the S. polyclada clade) and Takhtajaniantha . A key to the revised genera and a characterisation of the genera and major clades are provided.