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      Vein resection in patients with adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas adherent to the portomesenteric venous axis is beneficial despite a high rate of R1 resection

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          Abstract

          Backgrounds/Aims

          En-bloc vein resection (VR) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) of the head of pancreas adherent to the portomesenteric axis benefits patients when the vein wall is not infiltrated by tumour and an R0 resection is achieved, albeit at the expense of greater morbidity and mortality.

          Methods

          A retrospective review of pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC over 6 years was conducted. Patients were divided into a standard resection group (Group SR) and simultaneous vein resection group (Group VR) and compared for outcome.

          Results

          The study group consisted of 41 patients (Group SR 15, Group VR 26). VR was performed by end-to-end reconstruction in 12 patients and with interposition grafts in 13 cases (autologous vein in 10, PTFE in 3). R1 resections occurred in 49% patients, with the superior mesenteric artery margin most commonly involved. Patients with Ishikawa grade III and IV vein involvement were more likely to carry a positive SMA margin ( p=0.04). Involvement of the splenoportal junction was associated with a significantly greater risk of pancreatic transection margin involvement. No difference in morbidity was seen between the groups. Median survival in the entire group of patients was 17 months and did not vary significantly between the groups. The only significant predictor of survival was lymph node status.

          Conclusions

          Venous involvement by proximal PDAC is indicative of tumor location rather than tumor biology. VR improves outcomes in patients with tumor adhesion to the portomesenteric venous axis despite a high incidence of R1 resections and greater operative mortality.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer: the importance of this emerging stage of disease.

          Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) include those with localized disease who have tumor or patient characteristics that preclude immediate surgery. There is no optimal treatment schema for this distinct stage of disease, so the role of surgery is undefined. We defined patients with borderline resectable PA as fitting into one of three distinct groups. Group A comprised patients with tumor abutment of the visceral arteries or short-segment occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Vein. In group B, patients had findings suggestive but not diagnostic of metastasis. Group C patients were of marginal performance status. Patients were treated initially with chemotherapy, chemoradiation, or both; those of sufficient performance status who completed preoperative therapy without disease progression were considered for surgery. Between October 1999 and August 2006, 160 (7%) of 2,454 patients with PA were classified as borderline resectable. Of these, 125 (78%) completed preoperative therapy and restaging, and 66 (41%) underwent pancreatectomy. Vascular resection was required in 18 (27%) of 66 patients, and 62 (94%) underwent a margin-negative pancreatectomy. A partial pathologic response to induction therapy (< 50% viable tumor) was seen in 37 (56%) of 66 patients. Median survival was 40 months for the 66 patients who completed all therapy and 13 months for the 94 patients who did not undergo pancreatectomy (p < 0.001). This is the first large report of borderline resectable PA and includes objective definitions for this stage of disease. Our neoadjuvant approach allowed for identification of the marked subset of patients that was most likely to benefit from surgery, as evidenced by the favorable median survival in this group.
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            Redefining the R1 resection in pancreatic cancer.

            Resection margin (RM) status in pancreatic head adenocarcinoma is assessed histologically, but pathological examination is not standardized. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of standardized pathological examination on the reporting of RM status. A standardized protocol (SP) for pancreaticoduodenectomy specimen examination, involving multicolour margin staining, axial slicing and extensive tissue sampling, was developed. R1 resection was defined as tumour within 1 mm of the RM. A prospective series reported according to this protocol (SP series, n = 54) was compared with a historical matched series in which a non-standardized protocol was used (NSP series, n = 48). Implementation of the SP resulted in a higher R1 rate overall, and for pancreatic (22 of 26 85 per cent) compared with ampullary (four of 15) and bile duct (six of 13) cancer. Sampling of the circumferential RM was more extensive in the SP series and correlated with RM status. RM involvement was often multifocal (14 of 32), affecting the posterior RM most frequently (21 of 32). Survival correlated with RM status for the entire SP series (P < 0.001), but not for the NSP series. There was a trend towards better median and actuarial 5-year survival after R0 resection in the SP pancreatic cancer subgroup. Standardized examination influences the reporting of RM status.
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              Patterns of recurrence after curative resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

              Despite curative surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), most patients develop cancer recurrence and die from metastatic disease. Understanding of the patterns of failure after surgery can lead to new insights for novel therapeutic modalities. The aim of the present study is to describe the patterns of recurrence after curative resection of PDAC. A retrospective analysis was performed of 145 consecutive resections for PDAC between 1998 and 2005 (M/F 75/70; median (range) age 67 years (32-85 y)). The location of the first and consecutive recurrences, and the time interval to cancer recurrence after surgical resection was studied. The magnitude of tumour-free margin was less than a millimetre in 48 patients, whereas a positive surgical margin was observed in 27 patients. The median duration of follow-up was 18.5 (range 0.3-116.8) months. Cancer recurrence was observed in 110 patients. The first location of recurrence was locoregional in 19, extra-pancreatic in 66, and combined locoregional and extra-pancreatic in 25 patients. Extra-pancreatic recurrence developed in the liver in 57, peritoneal in 35, pulmonary in 15, and retroperitoneal in 5 patients. The median (95% CI) overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival was 18.7 (15.7-23.5) and 9.8 (7.5-12.4) months, respectively. The type of cancer recurrence did not significantly influence OS, while the resection margin status had a prognostic effect. The vast majority of patients who undergo potentially curative surgery for PDAC develop cancer recurrence located in the abdominal cavity. Surgical resection margins with tumour involvement and tumour-free margins of less then 1mm are negative prognostic factors. Further research on better local surgical control, peri-operative locoregional treatment, and more effective adjuvant systemic therapy is necessary to improve long-term survival of patients with curable PDAC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
                Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
                AHBPS
                Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
                Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
                2508-5778
                2508-5859
                August 2018
                31 August 2018
                : 22
                : 3
                : 261-268
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gleneagles Global Hospital and Health City, Chennai, India.
                [2 ]Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, London, UK.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ramkiran Cherukuru. Institute of Liver Disease and Transplantation, Gleneagles Global Hospital and Health City, 439, Cheran Nagar, Perumbakkam, Chennai - 600 100, India. Tel: +91-96180-28290, Fax: +91-44-4477-7000, cramkay@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.14701/ahbps.2018.22.3.261
                6125268
                Copyright © 2018 by The Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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