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      Patient considerations and drug selection in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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          Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Approximately 5,000 people are diagnosed with IPF in the UK every year. People with IPF suffer significant morbidity and, without any curative treatment at present, survival rates remain poor with a median survival of 3 years. While treatment remains largely supportive, many drug therapies have been trialed in IPF over the years. Pirfenidone and nintedanib are newly licensed treatments for IPF and the first drugs to have shown convincing evidence of slowing disease progression. In addition to evaluating clinical evidence, we also discuss elements affecting drug choice from the viewpoint of patients and health care professionals. We discuss pharmacological and nonpharmacological aspects of providing best supportive care for patients with IPF. However, few good quality studies exist focusing on controlling symptoms specifically in patients with IPF, and recommendations are often extrapolated from evidence in other chronic diseases. In covering these topics, we hope to provide readers with a comprehensive review of the available evidence pertaining to all aspects of care for patients suffering with IPF.

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          Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: prevailing and evolving hypotheses about its pathogenesis and implications for therapy.

           ,  M. Selman,   (2001)
          Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and usually fatal lung disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling, which result in irreversible distortion of the lung's architecture. Although the pathogenetic mechanisms remain to be determined, the prevailing hypothesis holds that fibrosis is preceded and provoked by a chronic inflammatory process that injures the lung and modulates lung fibrogenesis, leading to the end-stage fibrotic scar. However, there is little evidence that inflammation is prominent in early disease, and it is unclear whether inflammation is relevant to the development of the fibrotic process. Evidence suggests that inflammation does not play a pivotal role. Inflammation is not a prominent histopathologic finding, and epithelial injury in the absence of ongoing inflammation is sufficient to stimulate the development of fibrosis. In addition, the inflammatory response to a lung fibrogenic insult is not necessarily related to the fibrotic response. Clinical measurements of inflammation fail to correlate with stage or outcome, and potent anti-inflammatory therapy does not improve outcome. This review presents a growing body of evidence suggesting that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves abnormal wound healing in response to multiple, microscopic sites of ongoing alveolar epithelial injury and activation associated with the formation of patchy fibroblast-myofibroblast foci, which evolve to fibrosis. Progress in understanding the fibrogenic mechanisms in the lung is likely to yield more effective therapies.
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            Short telomeres are a risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

            Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) have a progressive and often fatal course, and their enigmatic etiology has complicated approaches to effective therapies. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of IIPs and shares with IIPs an increased incidence with age and unexplained scarring in the lung. Short telomeres limit tissue renewal capacity in the lung and germ-line mutations in telomerase components, hTERT and hTR, underlie inheritance in a subset of families with IPF. To examine the hypothesis that short telomeres contribute to disease risk in sporadic IIPs, we recruited patients who have no family history and examined telomere length in leukocytes and in alveolar cells. To screen for mutations, we sequenced hTERT and hTR. We also reviewed the cases for features of a telomere syndrome. IIP patients had shorter leukocyte telomeres than age-matched controls (P < 0.0001). In a subset (10%), IIP patients had telomere lengths below the first percentile for their age. Similar to familial cases with mutations, IPF patients had short telomeres in alveolar epithelial cells (P < 0.0001). Although telomerase mutations were rare, detected in 1 of 100 patients, we identified a cluster of individuals (3%) with IPF and cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, another feature of a telomere syndrome. Short telomeres are thus a signature in IIPs and likely play a role in their age-related onset. The clustering of cryptogenic liver cirrhosis with IPF suggests that the telomere shortening we identify has consequences and can contribute to what appears clinically as idiopathic progressive organ failure in the lung and the liver.
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              Interstitial lung disease guideline: the British Thoracic Society in collaboration with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Irish Thoracic Society.

               ,  ,  Douglas F Lake (2008)

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                08 April 2016
                : 12
                : 563-574
                [1 ]Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Cottingham, East Yorkshire, UK
                [2 ]Hull York Medical School, Academic Respiratory Medicine, Castle Hill Hospital, Cottingham, East Yorkshire, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Simon P Hart, Hull York Medical School, Academic Respiratory Medicine, Castle Hill Hospital, Castle Road, Cottingham, East Yorkshire HU16 5JQ, UK, Tel +44 1482 624 067, Email s.hart@ 123456hull.ac.uk
                © 2016 Trawinska et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



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