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      Primate abundance and habitat preferences on the lower Urubamba and Tambo rivers, central–eastern Peruvian Amazonia

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          Abstract

          We report information on population density, group size, and habitat preferences of primates along the lower Río Urubamba and in the Río Urubamba–Río Tambo interfluvium, in central–eastern Peruvian Amazonia, an area that has been little explored with regard to its primate fauna. During 425 km of transect walks in October–November 2008 and April–May 2009 totally 174 groups of nine primate species were encountered, the most common being Callicebus brunneus (45 groups), Saguinus imperator (41 groups), and Aotus nigriceps (26 groups). Group sizes were smallest for A. nigriceps and C. brunneus (mean of 2.8 and 2.9, respectively) and largest for Saimiri boliviensis (mean 15.6). Population densities were lowest for Lagothrix cana (3.3 individuals/km 2) and highest for A. nigriceps (31.1 individuals/km 2). Groups of C. brunneus, S. imperator, S. boliviensis, Cebus albifrons, and Cebus apella were most frequently (83 % of sightings) encountered in semi-dense or in open primary forest that included stands of bamboo ( Guadua sarcocarpa) or where bamboo was a very common species.

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          MAMMALS OF THE RIO JURUÁ AND THE EVOLUTIONARY AND ECOLOGICAL DIVERSIFICATION OF AMAZONIA

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            Riverine barriers and the geographic distribution of Amazonian species.

            Rivers have been suggested to have played an important role in shaping present-day patterns of ecological and genetic variation among Amazonian species and communities. Recent molecular studies have provided mixed support for the hypothesis that large lowland Amazonian rivers have functioned as significant impediments to gene flow among populations of neotropical species. To date, no study has systematically evaluated the impact that riverine barriers might have on structuring whole Amazonian communities. Our analyses of the phylogeography of frogs and small mammals indicate that a putative riverine barrier (the Juruá River) does not relate to present-day patterns of community similarity and species richness. Rather, our results imply a significant impact of the Andean orogenic axis and associated thrust-and-fold lowland dynamics in shaping patterns of biotic diversity along the Juruá. Combined results of this and other studies significantly weaken the postulated role of rivers as major drivers of Amazonian diversification.
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              Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, Atelidae) no Brasil

              Neste estudo analisou-se a variação geográfica e não-geográfica de táxons de bugios, gênero Alouatta Lacépède, 1799, que ocorrem no Brasil, com o objetivo de esclarecer a taxonomia do grupo. Para a análise morfológica, examinou-se um total de 1.286 espécimes mantidos em cinco museus brasileiros e dois norte-americanos. O material consistiu basicamente de peles, crânios e ossos hióides; esqueletos e espécimes preservados em via úmida foram escassos. O estudo se baseou na análise qualitativa dos complexos morfológicos em adição a 18 morfométicos do crânio e osso hióide. Antes das decisões taxonômicas, elaborou-se um estudo de variação geográfica, sexual, ontogenética e individual. Reconheceu-se 10 espécies de Alouatta ocorrendo no Brasil, sendo a maioria definida por caracteres discretos, porém diagnósticos. São elas: Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812), A. fusca (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812), A. clamitans Cabrera, 1940, A. belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766), A. discolor (Spix, 1823), A. ululata Elliot, 1912; A. juara (Linnaeus, 1766), A. macconnelli (Humboldt, 1812), A. puruensis Lönnberg, 1941 e A. nigerrima Lönnberg, 1941. Alouatta macconnelli e A. clamitans mostraram notável variação geográfica na coloração da pelagem e algumas variáveis morfométricas (polimorfismo) o que dificultou as definições e limites dos táxons. Alouatta belzebul apresentou variação em mosaico na coloração da pelagem. Alouatta ululata e A. puruensis foram definidas pela presença de dicromatismo sexual na pelagem, mas este caráter pode ser um artefato e necessita estudos adicionais para corroborar sua validade. Sinonimizou-se Alouatta belzebul mexianae Hagmann, 1908 com A. discolor; e a validade de Alouatta seniculus amazonica Lönnberg 1941, não foi considerada.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +49-551-3851123 , +49-551-3851291 , eheyman@gwdg.de
                Journal
                Primates
                Primates
                Primates; Journal of Primatology
                Springer Japan (Tokyo )
                0032-8332
                1610-7365
                10 May 2013
                10 May 2013
                2013
                : 54
                : 377-383
                Affiliations
                [ ]Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Apartado 575, Iquitos, Peru
                [ ]Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Av. Arenales 1256, Lima-14, Peru
                [ ]Abteilung Verhaltensökologie and Soziobiologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
                Article
                357
                10.1007/s10329-013-0357-3
                3790251
                23661029
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2013

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