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      Self-Assessment of Adherence to Medication: A Case Study in Campania Region Community-Dwelling Population

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          Abstract

          Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess self-reported medication adherence measure in patients selected during a health education and health promotion focused event held in the Campania region. The study also assessed sociodemographic determinants of adherence. Methods. An interviewer assisted survey was conducted to assess adherence using the Italian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Participants older than 18 years were interviewed by pharmacists while waiting for free-medical checkup. Results. A total of 312 participants were interviewed during the Health Campus event. A total of 187 (59.9%) had low adherence to medications. Pearson's bivariate correlation showed positive association between the MMAS-8 score and gender, educational level and smoking ( P < 0.05). A multivariable analysis showed that the level of education and smoking were independent predictors of adherence. Individuals with an average level of education (odds ratio (OR), 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–4.52) and nonsmoker (odds ratio (OR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–3.35) were found to be more adherent to medication than those with a lower level of education and smoking. Conclusion. The analysis showed very low prescription adherence levels in the interviewed population. The level of education was a relevant predictor associated with that result.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action.

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            Impact of medication adherence on hospitalization risk and healthcare cost.

            The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of medication adherence on healthcare utilization and cost for 4 chronic conditions that are major drivers of drug spending: diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and congestive heart failure. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort observation of patients who were continuously enrolled in medical and prescription benefit plans from June 1997 through May 1999. Patients were identified for disease-specific analysis based on claims for outpatient, emergency room, or inpatient services during the first 12 months of the study. Using an integrated analysis of administrative claims data, medical and drug utilization were measured during the 12-month period after patient identification. Medication adherence was defined by days' supply of maintenance medications for each condition. The study consisted of a population-based sample of 137,277 patients under age 65. Disease-related and all-cause medical costs, drug costs, and hospitalization risk were measured. Using regression analysis, these measures were modeled at varying levels of medication adherence. For diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, a high level of medication adherence was associated with lower disease-related medical costs. For these conditions, higher medication costs were more than offset by medical cost reductions, producing a net reduction in overall healthcare costs. For diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension, cost offsets were observed for all-cause medical costs at high levels of medication adherence. For all 4 conditions, hospitalization rates were significantly lower for patients with high medication adherence. For some chronic conditions, increased drug utilization can provide a net economic return when it is driven by improved adherence with guidelines-based therapy.
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              Predictive validity of a medication adherence measure in an outpatient setting.

              This study examines the psychometric properties and tests the concurrent and predictive validity of a structured, self-reported medication adherence measure in patients with hypertension. The authors also assessed various psychosocial determinants of adherence, such as knowledge, social support, satisfaction with care, and complexity of the medical regimen. A total of 1367 patients participated in the study; mean age was 52.5 years, 40.8% were male, 76.5% were black, 50.8% graduated from high school, 26% were married, and 54.1% had income <$5,000. The 8-item medication adherence scale was reliable (alpha=.83) and significantly associated with blood pressure control (P<.05). Using a cutpoint of <6, the sensitivity of the measure to identify patients with poor blood pressure control was estimated to be 93%, and the specificity was 53%. The medication adherence measure proved to be reliable, with good concurrent and predictive validity in primarily low-income, minority patients with hypertension and might function as a screening tool in outpatient settings with other patient groups.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Aging Res
                J Aging Res
                JAR
                Journal of Aging Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-2204
                2090-2212
                2015
                5 August 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF), Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy
                2Research and Development Board, Federico II University Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy
                3Translational Medical Sciences (DISMET), Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy
                4IRCCS SDN, 80131 Naples, Italy
                5Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772, USA
                6Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: F. R. Ferraro

                Article
                10.1155/2015/682503
                4541012
                Copyright © 2015 Enrica Menditto et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine

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