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      Regulation of Growth Hormone Release in Common Carp Pituitary Cells by Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: Signal Transduction Involves cAMP- and Calcium-Dependent Mechanisms

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          Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon/secretin peptide family and its molecular structure is highly conserved among vertebrates. In this study, the role of PACAP in regulating growth hormone (GH) secretion in fish was examined in vitro using common carp pituitary cells under column perifusion. A dose-dependent increase in GH release was observed after exposing pituitary cells to increasing doses of ovine PACAP38 (oPACAP38) and PACAP27 (oPACAP27), but not vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). A lack of GH response to VIP stimulation is consistent with the pharmacological properties of PAC-1 receptors, suggesting that this receptor subtype may be involved in PACAP-induced GH secretion in carp species. Although the maximal GH responses induced by oPACAP38 and oPACAP27 were similar, the minimal effective dose and ED50 value for oPACAP38 were significantly lower than that for oPACAP27. These results may indicate that common carp PAC-1 receptors are more sensitive to stimulation by oPACAP38 than by oPACAP27. In parallel studies, oPACAP38 and oPACAP27 were also effective in increasing cAMP release, cellular cAMP content, total cAMP production, and intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>) levels in common carp pituitary cells. Besides, the rise in [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub> induced by oPACAP38 was blocked by removing extracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>e</sub>) or by treatment with nifedipine, an inhibitor of voltage-sensitive Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels (VSCC). The dose dependence of PACAP-stimulated GH release in common carp pituitary cells was mimicked by activating adenylate cyclase using forskolin, inhibiting cAMP degradation using IBMX, increasing functional levels of intracellular cAMP using CPT-cAMP, or inducing [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>e</sub> entry using the Ca<sup>2+</sup> ionophore A23187. In contrast, the GH-releasing effect of oPACAP38 was suppressed by treatment with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A, protein kinase A inhibitor H89, and VSCC blocker nifedipine, or by perifusion with a Ca<sup>2+</sup>-free culture medium. These results, as a whole, suggest that PACAP functions as a GH-releasing factor in common carp by activating pituitary receptors resembling mammalian PAC-1 receptors. Apparently, the GH-releasing action of PACAP is mediated through the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>e</sub> influx through VSCC.

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          Most cited references 18

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          BRG1 contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription.

          Sequence-specific DNA binding activators of gene transcription may be assisted by SWI2 (SNF2), which contains a DNA-dependent ATPase domain. We have isolated a human complementary DNA encoding a 205K nuclear protein, BRG1, that contains extensive homology to SWI2 and Drosophila brahma. We report here that a SWI2/BRG1 chimera with the DNA-dependent ATPase domain replaced by corresponding human sequence restored normal mitotic growth and capacity for transcriptional activation to swi2- yeast cells. Point mutation of the conserved ATP binding site lysine abolished this complementation. This mutation in SWI2 exerted a dominant negative effect on transcription in yeast. A lysine to arginine substitution at the corresponding residue of BRG1 also generated a transcriptional dominant negative in human cells. BRG1 is exclusively nuclear and present in a high M(r) complex of about 2 x 10(6). These results show that the SWI2 family DNA-dependent ATPase domain has functional conservation between yeast and humans and suggest that a SWI/SNF protein complex is required for the activation of selective mammalian genes.
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            Hypothalamic and thyroidal regulation of growth hormone in tilapia.

            A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for recombinant tilapia growth hormone (GH) was established and validated. The ability of various hypothalamic factors to regulate GH secretion in the tilapia hybrid (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) was studied. Somatostatin1-14 (SRIF1-14; 10-100 micrograms/kg) was found to reduce circulating GH levels in a dose-dependent manner. SRIF1-14 (0.1-1000 nM) inhibited GH release from perifused pituitary fragments (ED50 0.83 nM). Human growth hormone-releasing hormone fragment 1-29 (hGHRH1-29; 100 micrograms/kg) doubled circulating GH levels and modestly stimulated GH secretion in vitro. Carp growth hormone-releasing hormone (cGHRH) stimulated GH secretion in vitro to a similar degree at the same dose (1 microM). Injection of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) superactive analog (10-100 micrograms/kg) increased plasma GH levels sixfold. sGnRH also stimulated GH release in vitro (ED50 142.56 nM). Dopamine (0.1-10 microM) and the D1 DA receptor agonist SKF 38393 increased GH secretion from perifused pituitary fragments dose-relatedly. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) had no effect on GH secretion from perifused pituitary fragments, but increased plasma GH levels, as did bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH). The increased plasma GH in the bTSH-treated fish coincided with a dramatic increase in T4; however, TRH increased GH without changing T4 levels. T3 increased the synthesis of GH by isolated pituitaries (incorporation of [3H]leucine). SRIF1-14 seems to be a most potent hypothalamic regulator of GH secretion in tilapia; sGnRH and DA both increased GH secretion, although sGnRH elicited considerably greater responses at lower doses. Two forms of GHRH increased GH levels, although the unavailability of the homologous peptide prevented an accurate evaluation of its importance in regulating GH secretion. The thyroid axis (TRH, TSH, and T3) stimulates both synthesis and release of GH, although TRH did not appear to have a direct effect on the level of the pituitary.
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              Neurotrophic activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on rat cerebellar cortex during development.

              High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors are present in the external granule cell layer of the rat cerebellum during postnatal development. In vitro studies have shown that PACAP promotes cell survival and neurite outgrowth on immature cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of PACAP on the development of the cerebellar cortex of 8-day-old rats. Incubation of cultured granule cells for 12 or 18 h with PACAP provoked a significant increase in the rate of incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine in cultured granule cells, suggesting that PACAP could stimulate the proliferation of granule cells. After 96 h of treatment, in vivo administration of PACAP provoked a transient increase in the number of granule cells in the molecular layer and in the internal granule cell layer. In contrast, PACAP did not affect the number of Purkinje cells. The augmentation of the number of granule cells evoked by PACAP was significantly inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP(6-38). Administration of PACAP also caused a significant increase in the volume of the cerebellar cortex. The present study provides evidence that PACAP can act in vivo as a trophic factor during rat brain development. Our data indicate that PACAP increases proliferation and/or inhibits programmed cell death of granule cells, as well as stimulating neuronal migration from the external granule cell layer toward the internal granule cell layer.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2002
                02 December 2002
                : 76
                : 5
                : 325-338
                aDepartment of Zoology, University of Hong Kong, bInstitute of Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, China
                66627 Neuroendocrinology 2002;76:325–338
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 62, Pages: 14
                Regulation of Growth Hormone


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