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      Carney Complex: Pathology and Molecular Genetics

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          Abstract

          Carney complex (CNC) is a unique multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MIM 160980) which is characterized by unusual biochemical features (chronic hypersomatotropinemia and paradoxical responses of cortisol production to glucocorticoids) and multi-tissue involvement. The gene coding for the protein kinase A (PKA) type 1α regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A, had been mapped to 17q22–24, one of the genetic loci involved in CNC, and allelic analysis using probes from this chromosomal region revealed consistent changes in CNC tumors. Sequencing of the PRKAR1A gene in over 100 kindreds showed a number of mutations; in almost all cases, the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon, and mutant mRNAs were subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. In CNC cells, PKA activity assays showed increased stimulation by cAMP. Few mutations that did not lead to a premature stop codon have been described; they are also associated with increased PKA activity. PRKAR1A has been investigated in sporadic endocrine tumors; it does not appear to be mutated in pituitary adenomas, but both thyroid and adrenal neoplasms have been found to harbor somatic mutations of this gene. Animal models of the disease have been developed. CNC is the first human disease caused by mutations of one of the subunits of the PKA holoenzyme, a critical component of numerous cellular signaling systems. This has wide implications for cAMP involvement in endocrine tumorigenesis.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Mutations of the gene encoding the protein kinase A type I-alpha regulatory subunit in patients with the Carney complex.

          Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and other myxomas, endocrine tumours and psammomatous melanotic schwannomas. CNC is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and the genes responsible have been mapped to 2p16 and 17q22-24 (refs 6, 7). Because of its similarities to the McCune-Albright syndrome and other features, such as paradoxical responses to endocrine signals, genes implicated in cyclic nucleotide-dependent signalling have been considered candidates for causing CNC (ref. 10). In CNC families mapping to 17q, we detected loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the vicinity of the gene (PRKAR1A) encoding protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1-alpha (RIalpha), including a polymorphic site within its 5' region. We subsequently identified three unrelated kindreds with an identical mutation in the coding region of PRKAR1A. Analysis of additional cases revealed the same mutation in a sporadic case of CNC, and different mutations in three other families, including one with isolated inherited cardiac myxomas. Analysis of PKA activity in CNC tumours demonstrated a decreased basal activity, but an increase in cAMP-stimulated activity compared with non-CNC tumours. We conclude that germline mutations in PRKAR1A, an apparent tumour-suppressor gene, are responsible for the CNC phenotype in a subset of patients with this disease.
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            Carney complex, a familial multiple neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome. Analysis of 11 kindreds and linkage to the short arm of chromosome 2.

            Carney complex is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple neoplasias, including myxomas at various sites and endocrine tumors, and lentiginosis. The genetic defect(s) responsible for the complex remain(s) unknown. We studied 101 subjects, including 51 affected members, from 11 North American kindreds with Carney complex. Blood samples were collected from patients and their family members. Hospital records, photographs, and tissue specimens of deceased individuals were reviewed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, patient-derived cell lines, and/or paraffin-embedded tissues. Linkage analysis was performed with highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, distributed over areas of the human genome harboring the most likely candidate genes. The most prevalent clinical manifestation in patients with Carney complex was spotty skin pigmentation, similar to that observed in Peutz-Jeghers and other lentiginosis syndromes. Skin and cardiac myxomas, Cushing syndrome, and acromegaly were present in 62, 30, 31 and 8 percent of the patients, respectively. Linkage was obtained for three markers on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16), with a maximum two-point lod score of 5.97 at theta = 0.03 for the marker CA-2 (odds in favor of linkage 10(6):1. The flanking markers CA7 and D2S378 defined a region of approximately 6.4 cM that is likely to contain the gene(s) associated with Carney complex. Candidate genes in the proximity, including the propiomelanocortin and the DNA-mismatch repair hMSH2 genes, were excluded. We conclude that the genetic defect(s) responsible for Carney complex map(s) to the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16). This region has exhibited cytogenetic aberrations in atrial myxomas associated with the complex, and has been characterized by microsatellite instability in human neoplasias.
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              Minireview: PRKAR1A: normal and abnormal functions.

              The type 1alpha regulatory subunit (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) (coded by the PRKAR1A gene) is the main component of type I PKA, which regulates most of the serine-threonine kinase activity catalyzed by the PKA holoenzyme in response to cAMP. Carney complex (CNC), or the complex of spotty skin pigmentation, myxomas, and endocrine overactivity, is a multiple endocrine (and not only) neoplasia syndrome that is due to PRKAR1A-inactivating mutations. The R1alpha protein and PRKAR1A mRNA have been found to be up-regulated in a series of cell lines and human and rodent neoplasms, suggesting this molecule's involvement in tumorigenesis and its potential role in cell cycle regulation, growth, and/or proliferation. Alterations in PKA activity elicit a variety of effects depending on the tissue, developmental stage, degree of differentiation, and cAMP levels. In addition, RIalpha may have functions independent of PKA. The presence of inactivating germline mutations and the loss of its wild-type allele in some CNC lesions indicate that PRKAR1A might function as a tumor suppressor gene in these tissues, but could PRKAR1A be a classic tumor suppressor gene? Probably not, and this review explains why.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8198-1
                978-3-318-01414-3
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2006
                October 2006
                16 October 2006
                : 83
                : 3-4
                : 189-199
                Affiliations
                Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA
                Article
                95527 Neuroendocrinology 2006;83:189–199
                10.1159/000095527
                17047382
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 11
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