1 February 2019
Glycolic acid, Ethylene glycol, D-xylose, Glyoxylate shunt, D-xylulose-1-phosphate pathway, D-ribulose-1-phosphate pathway, L-xylulose-1-phosphate pathway, Dahms pathway, Serine pathway, Metabolic engineering, Biotechnology, Biorefinery
Glycolic acid (GA) and ethylene glycol (EG) are versatile two-carbon organic chemicals used in multiple daily applications. GA and EG are currently produced by chemical synthesis, but their biotechnological production from renewable resources has received a substantial interest. Several different metabolic pathways by using genetically modified microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum and yeast have been established for their production. As a result, the yield of GA and EG produced from sugars has been significantly improved. Here, we describe the recent advancement in metabolic engineering efforts focusing on metabolic pathways and engineering strategies used for GA and EG production.