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      Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema with Multiple Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implants: Evidence from Real-Life Experience

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          Objective: To gain information about multiple dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX-I) injections in diabetic macular edema (DME) eyes in real-life clinical settings. Methods: Patients with DME treated with multiple (≥5) DEX-I injections between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2018, were retrospectively enrolled regardless of previous treatment with anti-VEGF agents. All patients were evaluated with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logMAR, ocular fundus, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at baseline and at 3 months after the last DEX-I injection. Multiple DEX-I injections were administered when necessary in case of DME recurrence. Main efficacy measures were changes in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT) from baseline to 3 months after the last DEX-I injection; main secondary measures were an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), the need for cataract surgery, endophthalmitis, and vitreous hemorrhage. Results: Seventeen patients (18 eyes) with DME and mean age (± SD) of 54.3 ± 8.16 years were treated with DEX-I injections between 2014 and 2018. The majority of eyes (77.8%) had been treated with a mean of 6.3 ± 3.2 anti-VEGF agents before switching to DEX-I. During a mean follow-up period of 37.6 months and after a mean number of 5.9 DEX-I injections, visual acuity improved or stabilized in 77.8% of all eyes, accompanied by a significant reduction in CRT. An increase in IOP was recorded in 38.8% of all patients, while a surgical procedure was needed for cataract in 73.3% of all phakic patients. Conclusions: In this real-life experience in Italy, multiple DEX-I treatments showed good efficacy with no new safety concerns. The follow-up duration of >3 years and a greater number of DEX-I intravitreal injections compared to other observations confirm the positive balance between risks and benefits of DEX-I in the long term.

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          Global Prevalence and Major Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy

          OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20–79 years. RESULTS A total of 35 studies (1980–2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6% (95% CI 34.5–34.8) for any DR, 6.96% (6.87–7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81% (6.74–6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2% (10.1–10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21 million with diabetic macular edema, and 28 million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics.
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            Diabetic retinopathy.

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              Ocular Anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic retinopathy: the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

              Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of visual impairment and preventable blindness, and represents a significant socioeconomic cost for health care systems worldwide. Therefore, new approaches beyond current standards of diabetes care are needed. Based on the crucial pathogenic role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development of diabetic macular edema (DME), intravitreal anti-VEGF agents have emerged as new treatments. To provide an understanding of the rationale for use and clinical efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment, we examine this topic in a two-part Bench to Clinic narrative. In the Bench narrative, we provide an overview of the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, the molecular characteristics of anti-VEGF agents currently used, and future perspectives and challenges in this area. In the Clinic narrative that follows our contribution, Cheung et al. provide an overview of the current evidence from clinical trials on anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic retinopathy.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                19 November 2019
                : 243
                : 6
                : 413-419
                IRCCS – Fondazione Bietti, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                *Mariacristina Parravano, IRCCS – Fondazione Bietti, Via Livenza, 3, IT–00198 Rome (Italy), mcparravano@gmail.com
                504890 Ophthalmologica 2020;243:413–419
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, Pages: 7
                Research Article


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