Gene correction in human long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) could be an effective therapy for monogenic diseases of the blood and immune system. Here we describe an approach for X-linked sSevere cCombined iImmunodeficiency (SCID-X1) using targeted integration of a cDNA into the endogenous start codon to functionally correct disease-causing mutations throughout the gene. Using a CRISPR-Cas9/AAV6 based strategy, we achieve up to 20% targeted integration frequencies in LT-HSCs. As measures of the lack of toxicity we observe no evidence of abnormal hematopoiesis following transplantation and no evidence of off-target mutations using a high-fidelity Cas9 as a ribonucleoprotein complex. We achieve high levels of targeting frequencies (median 45%) in CD34 + HSPCs from six SCID-X1 patients and demonstrate rescue of lymphopoietic defect in a patient derived HSPC population in vitro and in vivo. In sum, our study provides specificity, toxicity and efficacy data supportive of clinical development of genome editing to treat SCID-Xl.
Gene correction in hematopoietic stem cells could be a powerful way to treat monogenic diseases of the blood and immune system. Here the authors develop a strategy using CRISPR-Cas9 and an aAdeno-Associated vVirus(AAV)-delivered IL2RG cDNA to correct X-linked sSevere Ccombined iImmunodeficiency (SCID-X1) with a high success rate.