The amount and distribution of growth-associated protein (GAP-43)-like immunoreactive nerve fibers in the spleen of normal and immunized BALB/c mice were studied using immunohistochemical methods. A significant increase in the amount, as well as redistribution and morphological changes, of the GAP-43-like immunoreactive nerve fibers occurred in PPD (purified protein derivative from tuberculin) immunized animals. In the control animals, the GAP-43-like immunoreactive nerve fibers were found mainly distributed in association with vascular plexuses, with minor extension into the parenchyma of the inner zone of the periarterial lymph sheath. In the immunized animals, in addition to denser vascular plexuses, more fibers appeared in the outer zone of the periarterial lymph sheath, the marginal zone, and the red pulp, all known to be the sites where immune responding lymphocytes are located. Furthermore, the nerve fibers tended to have more branches and bear richer varicosities. The results suggest that active nerve remolding takes place in the spleen during immune response, which may serve as a mechanism through which the nervous system regulates immune responses.