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      Infectious Diseases Among Imprisoned - Risk factors and Outcomes (Review)

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      Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention

      Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention

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          People who use drugs, HIV, and human rights.

          We reviewed evidence from more than 900 studies and reports on the link between human rights abuses experienced by people who use drugs and vulnerability to HIV infection and access to services. Published work documents widespread abuses of human rights, which increase vulnerability to HIV infection and negatively affect delivery of HIV programmes. These abuses include denial of harm-reduction services, discriminatory access to antiretroviral therapy, abusive law enforcement practices, and coercion in the guise of treatment for drug dependence. Protection of the human rights of people who use drugs therefore is important not only because their rights must be respected, protected, and fulfilled, but also because it is an essential precondition to improving the health of people who use drugs. Rights-based responses to HIV and drug use have had good outcomes where they have been implemented, and they should be replicated in other countries. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The perfect storm: incarceration and the high-risk environment perpetuating transmission of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

            Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention of HIV using opioid agonist therapies such as methadone and buprenorphine is available in prisons in only a handful of EECA countries (methadone or buprenorphine in five countries and needle and syringe programmes in three countries), with none of them meeting recommended coverage levels. Similarly, antiretroviral therapy coverage, especially among people who inject drugs, is markedly under-scaled. Russia completely bans opioid agonist therapies and does not support needle and syringe programmes-with neither available in prisons-despite the country's high incarceration rate and having the largest burden of people with HIV who inject drugs in the region. Mathematical modelling for Ukraine suggests that high levels of incarceration in EECA countries facilitate HIV transmission among people who inject drugs, with 28-55% of all new HIV infections over the next 15 years predicted to be attributable to heightened HIV transmission risk among currently or previously incarcerated people who inject drugs. Scaling up of opioid agonist therapies within prisons and maintaining treatment after release would yield the greatest HIV transmission reduction in people who inject drugs. Additional analyses also suggest that at least 6% of all incident tuberculosis cases, and 75% of incident tuberculosis cases in people who inject drugs are due to incarceration. Interventions that reduce incarceration itself and effectively intervene with prisoners to screen, diagnose, and treat addiction and HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are urgently needed to stem the multiple overlapping epidemics concentrated in prisons.
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              Predictors of emergency room use by homeless adults in New York City: the influence of predisposing, enabling and need factors.

              Employing data from a 1987 shelter survey of 1260 homeless adults in New York City, multivariate models of emergency room (ER) use are developed which include an array of risk factors for visiting a hospital ER including health and mental health problems, victimization and injuries. The study's primary goal is to identify factors that predict ER use in this population. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were tested separately for men and women predicting three outcomes: any use of the ER during the past 6 months, use of the ER for injuries vs all other reasons (given any ER use), and the number of ER visits (given any ER use). Lower alcohol dependence, health symptoms and injuries were strong predictors for both men and women; other significant predictors differed markedly by gender. Both models were highly significant and produced strikingly high risk profiles. A high prevalence of victimization and injuries underlies ER use among the homeless. Based upon the findings, we recommend expanded health and victim services as well as preventive measures. Until primary care becomes available for this population, we advise against policies that discourage ER use by the homeless.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
                CSWHI
                Journal of Clinical Social Work and Health Intervention
                2222386X
                20769741
                March 31 2017
                March 31 2017
                : 8
                : 1
                : 7-10
                Article
                10.22359/cswhi_8_1_01
                © 2017

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Psychology, Social & Behavioral Sciences

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