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      The potential role of RNA N6-methyladenosine in Cancer progression

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          Abstract

          N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is considered the most common, abundant, and conserved internal transcript modification, especially in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA). m6A is installed by m6A methyltransferases (METTL3/14, WTAP, RBM15/15B, VIRMA and ZC3H13, termed “writers”), removed by demethylases (FTO, ALKBH5, and ALKBH3, termed “erasers”), and recognized by m6A-binding proteins (YTHDC1/2, YTHDF1/2/3, IGF2BP1/2/3, HNRNP, and eIF3, termed “readers”). Accumulating evidence suggests that m6A RNA methylation greatly impacts RNA metabolism and is involved in the pathogenesis of many kinds of diseases, including cancers. In this review, we focus on the physiological functions of m6A modification and its related regulators, as well as on the potential biological roles of these elements in human tumors.

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          Ythdc2 is an N6-methyladenosine binding protein that regulates mammalian spermatogenesis

          N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most common internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA. It is dynamically installed and removed, and acts as a new layer of mRNA metabolism, regulating biological processes including stem cell pluripotency, cell differentiation, and energy homeostasis. m 6 A is recognized by selective binding proteins; YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 work in concert to affect the translation of m 6 A-containing mRNAs, YTHDF2 expedites mRNA decay, and YTHDC1 affects the nuclear processing of its targets. The biological function of YTHDC2, the final member of the YTH protein family, remains unknown. We report that YTHDC2 selectively binds m 6 A at its consensus motif. YTHDC2 enhances the translation efficiency of its targets and also decreases their mRNA abundance. Ythdc2 knockout mice are infertile; males have significantly smaller testes and females have significantly smaller ovaries compared to those of littermates. The germ cells of Ythdc2 knockout mice do not develop past the zygotene stage and accordingly, Ythdc2 is upregulated in the testes as meiosis begins. Thus, YTHDC2 is an m 6 A-binding protein that plays critical roles during spermatogenesis.
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            VIRMA mediates preferential m 6 A mRNA methylation in 3′UTR and near stop codon and associates with alternative polyadenylation

            N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is enriched in 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) and near stop codon of mature polyadenylated mRNAs in mammalian systems and has regulatory roles in eukaryotic mRNA transcriptome switch. Significantly, the mechanism for this modification preference remains unknown, however. Herein we report a characterization of the full m6A methyltransferase complex in HeLa cells identifying METTL3/METTL14/WTAP/VIRMA/HAKAI/ZC3H13 as the key components, and we show that VIRMA mediates preferential mRNA methylation in 3′UTR and near stop codon. Biochemical studies reveal that VIRMA recruits the catalytic core components METTL3/METTL14/WTAP to guide region-selective methylations. Around 60% of VIRMA mRNA immunoprecipitation targets manifest strong m6A enrichment in 3′UTR. Depletions of VIRMA and METTL3 induce 3′UTR lengthening of several hundred mRNAs with over 50% targets in common. VIRMA associates with polyadenylation cleavage factors CPSF5 and CPSF6 in an RNA-dependent manner. Depletion of CPSF5 leads to significant shortening of 3′UTR of over 2800 mRNAs, 84% of which are modified with m6A and have increased m6A peak density in 3′UTR and near stop codon after CPSF5 knockdown. Together, our studies provide insights into m6A deposition specificity in 3′UTR and its correlation with alternative polyadenylation.
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              METTL3 facilitates tumor progression via an m 6 A-IGF2BP2-dependent mechanism in colorectal carcinoma

              Background Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and its main cause of death is tumor metastasis. RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an emerging regulatory mechanism for gene expression and methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) participates in tumor progression in several cancer types. However, its role in CRC remains unexplored. Methods Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) were used to detect METTL3 expression in cell lines and patient tissues. Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) and transcriptomic RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) were used to screen the target genes of METTL3. The biological functions of METTL3 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to explore the specific binding of target genes. RNA stability assay was used to detect the half-lives of the downstream genes of METTL3. Results Using TCGA database, higher METTL3 expression was found in CRC metastatic tissues and was associated with a poor prognosis. MeRIP-seq revealed that SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) was the downstream gene of METTL3. METTL3 knockdown in CRC cells drastically inhibited cell self-renewal, stem cell frequency and migration in vitro and suppressed CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis in both cell-based models and PDX models. Mechanistically, methylated SOX2 transcripts, specifically the coding sequence (CDS) regions, were subsequently recognized by the specific m6A “reader”, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), to prevent SOX2 mRNA degradation. Further, SOX2 expression positively correlated with METTL3 and IGF2BP2 in CRC tissues. The combined IHC panel, including “writer”, “reader”, and “target”, exhibited a better prognostic value for CRC patients than any of these components individually. Conclusions Overall, our study revealed that METTL3, acting as an oncogene, maintained SOX2 expression through an m6A-IGF2BP2-dependent mechanism in CRC cells, and indicated a potential biomarker panel for prognostic prediction in CRC. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12943-019-1038-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jsq814@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Mol Cancer
                Mol. Cancer
                Molecular Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                1476-4598
                12 May 2020
                12 May 2020
                2020
                : 19
                : 88
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.440642.0, ISNI 0000 0004 0644 5481, Department of Laboratory Medicine, , Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, ; NO.20, Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001 Jiangsu China
                [2 ]GRID grid.440642.0, ISNI 0000 0004 0644 5481, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, , Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, ; NO.20, Xisi Road, Nantong, 226001 Jiangsu China
                [3 ]GRID grid.260483.b, ISNI 0000 0000 9530 8833, School of Public Health, , Nantong University, ; NO 9, Seyuan Road, Nantong, 226019 Jiangsu China
                Article
                1204
                10.1186/s12943-020-01204-7
                7216508
                32398132
                d6c4b5b7-f0f9-4f24-8af5-6ad009a57222
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 12 January 2020
                : 23 April 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81871720
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                n6-methyladenosine (m6a),molecular mechanisms,cancer progression
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                n6-methyladenosine (m6a), molecular mechanisms, cancer progression

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