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      Interleukin-10 and prostaglandin E 2 have complementary but distinct suppressive effects on Toll-like receptor-mediated dendritic cell activation in ovarian carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Dendritic cells (DC) have the potential to instigate a tumour-specific immune response, but their ability to prime naïve lymphocytes depends on their activation status. Thus, for tumour immunotherapy to be effective, the provision of appropriate DC activation stimuli such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists is crucial in order to overcome immunosuppression associated with the tumour microenvironment. To address this, we investigated how ovarian carcinoma (OC)-associated ascites impedes activation of DC by TLR agonists. Our results show that ascites reduces the TLR-mediated up-regulation of CD86 and partially inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in monocyte-derived DC from healthy controls. We further observe an impaired T cell stimulatory capacity of DC upon activation with TLR agonists in the presence of ascites, indicating that their functionality is affected by the immunosuppressive factors. We identify IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) as the pivotal immunosuppressive components in OC-associated ascites compromising TLR-mediated DC activation. Interestingly, IL-10 is present in both ascites from patients with malignant OC and in peritoneal fluid from patients with benign ovarian conditions and both fluids have similar ability to reduce TLR-mediated DC activation. However, depletion of IL-10 from ascites revealed that the presence of paracrine IL-10 is not crucial for ascites-mediated suppression of DC activation in response to TLR activation. Unlike IL-10, PGE 2 is absent from peritoneal fluid of patients with benign conditions and selectively reduces TNFα induction in response to TLR-mediated activation in the presence of OC-associated ascites. Our study highlights PGE 2 as an immunosuppressive component of the malignant OC microenvironment rendering PGE 2 a potentially important target for immunotherapy in OC.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune privilege and predicts reduced survival.

          Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells mediate homeostatic peripheral tolerance by suppressing autoreactive T cells. Failure of host antitumor immunity may be caused by exaggerated suppression of tumor-associated antigen-reactive lymphocytes mediated by T(reg) cells; however, definitive evidence that T(reg) cells have an immunopathological role in human cancer is lacking. Here we show, in detailed studies of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) T(reg) cells in 104 individuals affected with ovarian carcinoma, that human tumor T(reg) cells suppress tumor-specific T cell immunity and contribute to growth of human tumors in vivo. We also show that tumor T(reg) cells are associated with a high death hazard and reduced survival. Human T(reg) cells preferentially move to and accumulate in tumors and ascites, but rarely enter draining lymph nodes in later cancer stages. Tumor cells and microenvironmental macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which mediates trafficking of T(reg) cells to the tumor. This specific recruitment of T(reg) cells represents a mechanism by which tumors may foster immune privilege. Thus, blocking T(reg) cell migration or function may help to defeat human cancer.
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            Intratumoral T cells, recurrence, and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

            Although tumor-infiltrating T cells have been documented in ovarian carcinoma, a clear association with clinical outcome has not been established. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of 186 frozen specimens from advanced-stage ovarian carcinomas to assess the distribution of tumor-infiltrating T cells and conducted outcome analyses. Molecular analyses were performed in some tumors by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD3+ tumor-infiltrating T cells were detected within tumor-cell islets (intratumoral T cells) in 102 of the 186 tumors (54.8 percent); they were undetectable in 72 tumors (38.7 percent); the remaining 12 tumors (6.5 percent) could not be evaluated. There were significant differences in the distributions of progression-free survival and overall survival according to the presence or absence of intratumoral T cells (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The five-year overall survival rate was 38.0 percent among patients whose tumors contained T cells and 4.5 percent among patients whose tumors contained no T cells in islets. Significant differences in the distributions of progression-free survival and overall survival according to the presence or absence of intratumoral T cells (P<0.001 for both comparisons) were also seen among 74 patients with a complete clinical response after debulking and platinum-based chemotherapy: the five-year overall survival rate was 73.9 percent among patients whose tumors contained T cells and 11.9 percent among patients whose tumors contained no T cells in islets. The presence of intratumoral T cells independently correlated with delayed recurrence or delayed death in multivariate analysis and was associated with increased expression of interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, and lymphocyte-attracting chemokines within the tumor. The absence of intratumoral T cells was associated with increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. The presence of intratumoral T cells correlates with improved clinical outcome in advanced ovarian carcinoma. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T cell ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer.

              In a recent report, [Zhang et al. (2003) N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 203-213], the presence of CD3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was found to correlate with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for TILs and cancer testis antigens in 117 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. The interrelationship between subpopulations of TILs and expression of cancer testis antigens was investigated, as well as between TILs and overall survival. The median follow-up of the patients was 31 months. Patients with higher frequencies of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells demonstrated improved survival compared with patients with lower frequencies [median = 55 versus 26 months; hazard ratio = 0.33; confidence interval (C.I.) = 0.18-0.60; P = 0.0003]. No association was found for CD3+ TILs or other subtypes of intraepithelial or stromal TILs. However, the subgroups with high versus low intraepithelial CD8+/CD4+ TIL ratios had median survival of 74 and 25 months, respectively (hazard ratio = 0.30; C.I. = 0.16-0.55; P = 0.0001). These results indicate that CD4+ TILs influence the beneficial effects of CD8+ TIL. This unfavorable effect of CD4+ T cells on prognosis was found to be due to CD25+ forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T cells (Treg; suppressor T cells), as indicated by survival of patients with high versus low CD8+/Treg ratios (median = 58 versus 23 months; hazard ratio = 0.31; C.I. = 0.17-0.58; P = 0.0002). The favorable prognostic effect of intraepithelial CD8+ TILs did not correlate with concurrent expression of NY-ESO-1 or MAGE antigens. We conclude that intraepithelial CD8+ TILs and a high CD8+/Treg ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                14 April 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammatory Disease, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Centre for Molecular & Cellular Biology of Inflammation (CMCBI), Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammatory Disease, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
                [3 ]Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
                [4 ]Department of Gynaecological Oncology, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, United Kingdom
                Columbia University, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: EB LST SSD.

                • Formal analysis: EB.

                • Funding acquisition: SSD.

                • Investigation: EB ALJ HE MG SSD.

                • Resources: AL SAM GM JS AAA SRK.

                • Supervision: LST SSD.

                • Visualization: EB.

                • Writing – original draft: EB SSD.

                • Writing – review & editing: JS LST.

                [¤a]

                Current address: Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

                [¤b]

                Current address: National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, United Kingdom

                Article
                PONE-D-16-41335
                10.1371/journal.pone.0175712
                5391951
                28410380
                © 2017 Brencicova et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Pages: 24
                Product
                Funding
                This work was funded by a Cancer Research UK Career Development Award to SD (A5593). EB was funded by a Cancer Research UK Ph.D. studentship (A11089) ( http://www.cancerresearchuk.org). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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